- Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) represent over 190 species and subspecies, some of which can produce disease in humans of all ages and can affect both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sites.
- This guideline focuses on pulmonary disease in adults (without cystic fibrosis or human immunodeficiency virus infection) caused by the most common NTM pathogens such as Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium xenopi among the slowly growing NTM and Mycobacterium abscessus among the rapidly growing NTM.
- The Panel recommends that clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic data be collected to monitor response to therapy, expectations be set for the patient's progress and patient cooperation be enlisted in identifying adverse drug reactions. (See full text guideline for further details)
Table 1. Clinical, Radiographic and Microbiologic Criteria for Diagnosis NTM Pulmonary Diseasea
|Clinical||Pulmonary or Systemic Symptoms||Both clinical and radiologic criteria required|
|Radiologic||Nodular or cavitary opacities on chest radiograph, or a high-resolution computed tomography scan that shows bronchiectasis with multiple small nodules|
|and||Appropriate exclusion of other diagnoses|
b When 2 positive cultures are obtained, the isolates should be the same NTM species (or subspecies in the case of M. abscessus) in order to meet disease criteria.