Cardiorenal Syndrome: Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment Strategies

Authoring Organization

Publication Month/Year

April 16, 2019

Last Updated Month/Year

November 28, 2022

Document Type


External Publication Status


Country of Publication


Document Objectives

To describe the epidemiology and pathogenesis of cardiorenal syndrome in the context of the continuously evolving nature of its clinicopathological description over the past decade.

Inclusion Criteria

Female, Male, Adult, Older adult

Health Care Settings

Ambulatory, Hospital

Intended Users

Nurse, nurse practitioner, physician, physician assistant


Diagnosis, Treatment

Diseases/Conditions (MeSH)

D058186 - Acute Kidney Injury


chronic kidney disease, heart failure

Source Citation

Cardiorenal Syndrome: Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment Strategies: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
Janani Rangaswami, MD, Vice Chair Vivek Bhalla, MD, FAHA John E.A. Blair, MD Tara I. Chang, MD, MS Salvatore Costa, MD Krista L. Lentine, MD, PhD Edgar V. Lerma, MD, FAHA Kenechukwu Mezue, MD, MSc Mark Molitch, MD Wilfried Mullens, MD, PhD Claudio Ronco, MD W.H. Wilson Tang, MD, FAHA Peter A. McCullough, MD, MPH, FAHA, Chair On behalf of the American Heart Association Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease and Council on Clinical Cardiology