San Francisco Syncope Rule

Defines high-risk criteria for patients with syncope

Congestive Heart Failure History

Hematocrit <30%

EKG Abnormal

  • New ECG change from any source
  • any non-sinus rhythm on EKG or monitoring

Shortness of Breath Symptoms

Systolic BP <90 mmHg at Triage


Source: Quinn JV, Stiell IG, McDermott DA, Sellers KL, Kohn MA, Wells GA. Derivation of the San Francisco Syncope Rule to Predict Patients With Short-Term Serious Outcomes. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2004;43(2):224-232.