XARELTO (rivaroxaban) tablet, film coated
Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
AndersonBrecon Inc.
Patheon, Inc.
Bayer AG
Bayer AG
Bayer AG
Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
LUSOMEDICAMENTA - SOCIEDADE TÉCNICA FARMACÊUTICA, S.A.
Janssen Ortho LLC
Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
XARELTO
rivaroxaban
CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM
HYPROMELLOSE, UNSPECIFIED
LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE
FERRIC OXIDE YELLOW
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350
TITANIUM DIOXIDE
RIVAROXABAN
RIVAROXABAN
light yellow
2;5;Xa
Xarelto
rivaroxaban
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM
HYPROMELLOSE, UNSPECIFIED
LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350
TITANIUM DIOXIDE
FERRIC OXIDE RED
RIVAROXABAN
RIVAROXABAN
light red
biconvex
10;Xa
Xarelto
rivaroxaban
HYPROMELLOSE, UNSPECIFIED
LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350
TITANIUM DIOXIDE
FERRIC OXIDE RED
RIVAROXABAN
RIVAROXABAN
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM
biconvex
15;Xa
Xarelto
rivaroxaban
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM
HYPROMELLOSE, UNSPECIFIED
LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350
TITANIUM DIOXIDE
FERRIC OXIDE RED
RIVAROXABAN
RIVAROXABAN
dark red
20;Xa
XARELTO
Rivaroxaban
Xarelto
rivaroxaban
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM
HYPROMELLOSE, UNSPECIFIED
LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350
TITANIUM DIOXIDE
FERRIC OXIDE RED
RIVAROXABAN
RIVAROXABAN
biconvex
15;Xa
Xarelto
rivaroxaban
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM
HYPROMELLOSE, UNSPECIFIED
LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350
TITANIUM DIOXIDE
FERRIC OXIDE RED
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL, UNSPECIFIED
TALC
RIVAROXABAN
RIVAROXABAN
dark red
20;Xa
Xarelto
rivaroxaban
ANHYDROUS CITRIC ACID
HYPROMELLOSE, UNSPECIFIED
MANNITOL
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE SODIUM, UNSPECIFIED
SODIUM BENZOATE
SUCRALOSE
XANTHAN GUM
RIVAROXABAN
RIVAROXABAN
White to off-white

WARNING: (A) PREMATURE DISCONTINUATION OF XARELTO INCREASES THE RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS, (B) SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA

WARNING: (A) PREMATURE DISCONTINUATION OF XARELTO INCREASES THE RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS, (B) SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA

See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.

(A) Premature discontinuation of XARELTO increases the risk of thrombotic events

Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including XARELTO, increases the risk of thrombotic events. To reduce this risk, consider coverage with another anticoagulant if XARELTO is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy. ( 2.2, 2.3, 5.1, 14.1)

(B) Spinal/epidural hematoma

Epidural or spinal hematomas have occurred in patients treated with XARELTO who are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. ( 5.2, 5.3, 6.2)

Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment and if observed, treat urgently. Consider the benefits and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients who are or who need to be anticoagulated. ( 5.3)

A. Premature discontinuation of XARELTO increases the risk of thrombotic events

Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including XARELTO, increases the risk of thrombotic events. If anticoagulation with XARELTO is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Studies (14.1)] .

B. Spinal/epidural hematoma

Epidural or spinal hematomas have occurred in patients treated with XARELTO who are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include:

  • use of indwelling epidural catheters
  • concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, other anticoagulants
  • a history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures
  • a history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery
  • optimal timing between the administration of XARELTO and neuraxial procedures is not known

[see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] .

Consider the benefits and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients anticoagulated or to be anticoagulated for thromboprophylaxis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] .

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

XARELTO is a factor Xa inhibitor indicated:

  • to reduce risk of stroke and systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation ( 1.1)
  • for treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) ( 1.2)
  • for treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) ( 1.3)
  • for reduction in the risk of recurrence of DVT or PE ( 1.4)
  • for the prophylaxis of DVT, which may lead to PE in patients undergoing knee or hip replacement surgery ( 1.5)
  • for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in acutely ill medical patients ( 1.6)
  • to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) ( 1.7)
  • to reduce the risk of major thrombotic vascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), including patients after recent lower extremity revascularization due to symptomatic PAD ( 1.8)
  • for treatment of VTE and reduction in the risk of recurrent VTE in pediatric patients from birth to less than 18 years ( 1.9)
  • for thromboprophylaxis in pediatric patients 2 years and older with congenital heart disease after the Fontan procedure ( 1.10)

1.1 Reduction of Risk of Stroke and Systemic Embolism in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

XARELTO is indicated to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in adult patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

There are limited data on the relative effectiveness of XARELTO and warfarin in reducing the risk of stroke and systemic embolism when warfarin therapy is well-controlled [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

1.2 Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis

XARELTO is indicated for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

1.3 Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism

XARELTO is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE).

1.4 Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and/or Pulmonary Embolism

XARELTO is indicated for the reduction in the risk of recurrence of DVT and/or PE in adult patients at continued risk for recurrent DVT and/or PE after completion of initial treatment lasting at least 6 months.

1.5 Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery

XARELTO is indicated for the prophylaxis of DVT, which may lead to PE in adult patients undergoing knee or hip replacement surgery.

1.6 Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism in Acutely Ill Medical Patients at Risk for Thromboembolic Complications Not at High Risk of Bleeding

XARELTO is indicated for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and VTE related death during hospitalization and post hospital discharge in adult patients admitted for an acute medical illness who are at risk for thromboembolic complications due to moderate or severe restricted mobility and other risk factors for VTE and not at high risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Studies (14.5)] .

1.7 Reduction of Risk of Major Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

XARELTO, in combination with aspirin, is indicated to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) in adult patients with coronary artery disease.

1.8 Reduction of Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD), Including Patients after Lower Extremity Revascularization due to Symptomatic PAD

XARELTO, in combination with aspirin, is indicated to reduce the risk of major thrombotic vascular events (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute limb ischemia, and major amputation of a vascular etiology) in adult patients with PAD, including patients who have recently undergone a lower extremity revascularization procedure due to symptomatic PAD.

1.9 Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism and Reduction in Risk of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Pediatric Patients

XARELTO is indicated for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the reduction in the risk of recurrent VTE in pediatric patients from birth to less than 18 years after at least 5 days of initial parenteral anticoagulant treatment.

1.10 Thromboprophylaxis in Pediatric Patients with Congenital Heart Disease after the Fontan Procedure

XARELTO is indicated for thromboprophylaxis in pediatric patients aged 2 years and older with congenital heart disease who have undergone the Fontan procedure.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

  • Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: 15 or 20 mg, once daily with food ( 2.1)
  • Treatment of DVT and/or PE: 15 mg orally twice daily with food for the first 21 days followed by 20 mg orally once daily with food for the remaining treatment ( 2.1)
  • Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and/or PE in patients at continued risk for DVT and/or PE: 10 mg once daily with or without food, after at least 6 months of standard anticoagulant treatment ( 2.1)
  • Prophylaxis of DVT Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery: 10 mg orally once daily with or without food ( 2.1)
  • Prophylaxis of VTE in Acutely Ill Medical Patients at Risk for Thromboembolic Complications Not at High Risk of Bleeding: 10 mg once daily, with or without food, in hospital and after hospital discharge for a total recommended duration of 31 to 39 days ( 2.1)
  • CAD or PAD: 2.5 mg orally twice daily with or without food, in combination with aspirin (75–100 mg) once daily ( 2.1)
  • Pediatric Patients: See dosing recommendations in the Full Prescribing Information ( 2.2)

2.1 Recommended Dosage in Adults

Table 1: Recommended Dosage in Adults
Indication Renal Considerations Calculate CrCl based on actual weight. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)] Dosage Food/Timing See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)
Reduction in Risk of Stroke in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation CrCl >50 mL/min 20 mg once daily Take with evening meal
CrCl ≤50 mL/min Patients with CrCl <30 mL/min were not studied, but administration of XARELTO is expected to result in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban similar to those in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30 to <50 mL/min) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)] 15 mg once daily Take with evening meal
Treatment of DVT and/or PE CrCl ≥15 mL/min
15 mg twice daily
▼ after 21 days, transition to ▼
20 mg once daily
Take with food, at the same time each day
CrCl <15 mL/min Avoid Use
Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and/or PE in patients at continued risk for DVT and/or PE CrCl ≥15 mL/min
10 mg once daily, after at least 6 months of standard anticoagulant treatment Take with or without food
CrCl <15 mL/min Avoid Use
Prophylaxis of DVT Following:
  • Hip Replacement Surgery See Dosage and Administration (2.4)
CrCl ≥15 mL/min
10 mg once daily for 35 days, 6–10 hours after surgery once hemostasis has been established Take with or without food
CrCl <15 mL/min Avoid Use
  • Knee Replacement Surgery
CrCl ≥15 mL/min
10 mg once daily for 12 days, 6–10 hours after surgery once hemostasis has been established Take with or without food
CrCl <15 mL/min Avoid Use
Prophylaxis of VTE in Acutely Ill Medical Patients at Risk for Thromboembolic Complications Not at High Risk of Bleeding CrCl ≥15 mL/min
10 mg once daily, in hospital and after hospital discharge, for a total recommended duration of 31 to 39 days Take with or without food
CrCl <15 mL/min Avoid Use
Reduction of Risk of Major Cardiovascular Events (CV Death, MI, and Stroke) in CAD No dose adjustment needed based on CrCl 2.5 mg twice daily, plus aspirin (75–100 mg) once daily Take with or without food
Reduction of Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in PAD, Including Patients after Lower Extremity Revascularization due to Symptomatic PAD No dose adjustment needed based on CrCl 2.5 mg twice daily, plus aspirin (75–100 mg) once daily.
When starting therapy after a successful lower extremity revascularization procedure, initiate once hemostasis has been established.
Take with or without food

2.2 Recommended Dosage in Pediatric Patients

Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism and Reduction in Risk of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Pediatric Patients

Table 2: Recommended Dosage in Pediatric Patients Birth to Less than 18 Years for Treatment of and Reduction in Risk of Recurrent VTE Initiate XARELTO treatment following at least 5 days of initial parenteral anticoagulation therapy. , Patients <6 months of age should meet the following criteria: at birth were at least 37 weeks of gestation, have had at least 10 days of oral feeding, and weigh ≥2.6 kg at the time of dosing.
Dosage Form Body Weight 1 mg XARELTO = 1 mL Suspension
Dosage Total Daily Dose All doses should be taken with feeding or with food since exposures match that of 20 mg daily dose in adults.
Once a Day Once a day: approximately 24 hours apart; 2 times a day: approximately 12 hours apart; 3 times a day: approximately 8 hours apart 2 Times a Day
3 Times a Day
Oral Suspension Only 2.6 kg to 2.9 kg 0.8 mg 2.4 mg
3 kg to 3.9 kg 0.9 mg 2.7 mg
4 kg to 4.9 kg 1.4 mg 4.2 mg
5 kg to 6.9 kg 1.6 mg 4.8 mg
7 kg to 7.9 kg 1.8 mg 5.4 mg
8 kg to 8.9 kg 2.4 mg 7.2 mg
9 kg to 9.9 kg 2.8 mg 8.4 mg
10 kg to 11.9 kg 3 mg 9 mg
12 kg to 29.9 kg 5 mg 10 mg
Oral Suspension or Tablets 30 kg to 49.9 kg 15 mg 15 mg
≥50 kg 20 mg 20 mg

Dosing of XARELTO was not studied and therefore dosing cannot be reliably determined in the following patient populations. Its use is therefore not recommended in children less than 6 months of age with any of the following:

  • Less than 37 weeks of gestation at birth
  • Less than 10 days of oral feeding
  • Body weight of less than 2.6 kg.

To increase absorption, all doses should be taken with feeding or with food.

Monitor the child's weight and review the dose regularly, especially for children below 12 kg. This is to ensure a therapeutic dose is maintained.

All pediatric patients (except <2 years old with catheter-related thrombosis): Therapy with XARELTO should be continued for at least 3 months in children with thrombosis. Treatment can be extended up to 12 months when clinically necessary. The benefit of continued therapy beyond 3 months should be assessed on an individual basis taking into account the risk for recurrent thrombosis versus the potential risk of bleeding.

Pediatric patients <2 years old with catheter-related thrombosis: Therapy with XARELTO should be continued for at least 1 month in children less than 2 years old with catheter-related thrombosis. Treatment can be extended up to 3 months when clinically necessary. The benefit of continued therapy beyond 1 month should be assessed on an individual basis taking into account the risk for recurrent thrombosis versus the potential risk of bleeding.

Thromboprophylaxis in Pediatric Patients with Congenital Heart Disease after the Fontan Procedure

Table 3: Recommended Dosage for Thromboprophylaxis in Pediatric Patients with Congenital Heart Disease
Dosage Form Body Weight 1 mg XARELTO = 1 mL Suspension
Dosage Total Daily Dose All doses can be taken with or without food since exposures match that of 10 mg daily dose in adults.
Once a Day Once a day: approximately 24 hours apart; 2 times a day: approximately 12 hours apart. 2 Times a Day
Oral Suspension Only 7 kg to 7.9 kg 1.1 mg 2.2 mg
8 kg to 9.9 kg 1.6 mg 3.2 mg
10 kg to 11.9 kg 1.7 mg 3.4 mg
12 kg to 19.9 kg 2 mg 4 mg
20 kg to 29.9 kg 2.5 mg 5 mg
30 kg to 49.9 kg 7.5 mg 7.5 mg
Oral Suspension or Tablets ≥50 kg 10 mg 10 mg

Administration in Pediatric Patients

Food Effect:

For the treatment of VTE in children, the dose should be taken with food to increase absorption.

For thromboprophylaxis after Fontan procedure, the dose can be taken with or without food.

Vomit or Spit up: If the patient vomits or spits up the dose within 30 minutes after receiving the dose, a new dose should be given. However, if the patient vomits more than 30 minutes after the dose is taken, the dose should not be re-administered and the next dose should be taken as scheduled. If the patient vomits or spits up the dose repeatedly, the caregiver should contact the child's doctor right away.

Tablets: XARELTO tablet must not be split in an attempt to provide a fraction of a tablet dose.

For children unable to swallow 10, 15, or 20 mg whole tablets, XARELTO oral suspension should be used. XARELTO 2.5 mg tablets are not recommended for use in pediatric patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] .

Use in Renal Impairment in Pediatric Patients

Patients 1 Year of Age or Older

  • Mild renal impairment (eGFR: 50 to ≤ 80 mL/min/1.73 m 2): No dose adjustment is required.
  • Moderate or severe renal impairment (eGFR: <50 mL/min/1.73 m 2): avoid use, as limited clinical data are available.

Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) can be done using the updated Schwartz formula, eGFR (Schwartz) = (0.413 × height in cm)/serum creatinine in mg/dL, if serum creatinine (SCr) is measured by an enzymatic creatinine method that has been calibrated to be traceable to isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS).

If SCr is measured with routine methods that have not been recalibrated to be traceable to IDMS (e.g., the traditional Jaffé reaction), the eGFR should be obtained from the original Schwartz formula: eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m 2) = k * height (cm)/SCr (mg/dL), where k is proportionality constant:

  • k = 0.55 in children 1 year to 13 years
  • k = 0.55 in girls > 13 and < 18 years
  • k = 0.70 in boys > 13 and < 18 years

Patients Less than 1 Year of Age

Determine renal function using serum creatinine. Avoid use of XARELTO in pediatric patients younger than 1 year with serum creatinine results above 97.5 th percentile, as no clinical data are available.

Table 4: Reference Values of Serum Creatinine in Pediatric Patients <1 Year of Age
Age 97.5 th Percentile of Creatinine
(mg/dL)
97.5 th Percentile of Creatinine
(µmol/L)
Week 2 0.52 46
Week 3 0.46 41
Week 4 0.42 37
Month 2 0.37 33
Month 3 0.34 30
Month 4–6 0.34 30
Month 7–9 0.34 30
Month 10–12 0.36 32

2.3 Switching to and from XARELTO

Switching from Warfarin to XARELTO - When switching patients from warfarin to XARELTO, discontinue warfarin and start XARELTO as soon as the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is below 3.0 in adults and below 2.5 in pediatric patients to avoid periods of inadequate anticoagulation.

Switching from XARELTO to Warfarin –

  • Adults:

No clinical trial data are available to guide converting patients from XARELTO to warfarin. XARELTO affects INR, so INR measurements made during coadministration with warfarin may not be useful for determining the appropriate dose of warfarin. One approach is to discontinue XARELTO and begin both a parenteral anticoagulant and warfarin at the time the next dose of XARELTO would have been taken.

  • Pediatric Patients:

To ensure adequate anticoagulation during the transition from XARELTO to warfarin, continue XARELTO for at least 2 days after the first dose of warfarin. After 2 days of co-administration, an INR should be obtained prior to the next scheduled dose of XARELTO. Co-administration of XARELTO and warfarin is advised to continue until the INR is ≥ 2.0.

Once XARELTO is discontinued, INR testing may be done reliably 24 hours after the last dose.

Switching from XARELTO to Anticoagulants other than Warfarin - For adult and pediatric patients currently taking XARELTO and transitioning to an anticoagulant with rapid onset, discontinue XARELTO and give the first dose of the other anticoagulant (oral or parenteral) at the time that the next XARELTO dose would have been taken [see Drug Interactions (7.4)] .

Switching from Anticoagulants other than Warfarin to XARELTO - For adult and pediatric patients currently receiving an anticoagulant other than warfarin, start XARELTO 0 to 2 hours prior to the next scheduled administration of the drug (e.g., low molecular weight heparin or non-warfarin oral anticoagulant) and omit administration of the other anticoagulant. For unfractionated heparin being administered by continuous infusion, stop the infusion and start XARELTO at the same time.

2.4 Discontinuation for Surgery and other Interventions

If anticoagulation must be discontinued to reduce the risk of bleeding with surgical or other procedures, XARELTO should be stopped at least 24 hours before the procedure to reduce the risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] . In deciding whether a procedure should be delayed until 24 hours after the last dose of XARELTO, the increased risk of bleeding should be weighed against the urgency of intervention. XARELTO should be restarted after the surgical or other procedures as soon as adequate hemostasis has been established, noting that the time to onset of therapeutic effect is short [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] . If oral medication cannot be taken during or after surgical intervention, consider administering a parenteral anticoagulant.

2.5 Missed Dose

Adults

  • For patients receiving 2.5 mg twice daily: if a dose is missed, the patient should take a single 2.5 mg XARELTO dose as recommended at the next scheduled time.
  • For patients receiving 15 mg twice daily: The patient should take XARELTO immediately to ensure intake of 30 mg XARELTO per day. Two 15 mg tablets may be taken at once.
  • For patients receiving 20 mg, 15 mg or 10 mg once daily: The patient should take the missed XARELTO dose immediately. The dose should not be doubled within the same day to make up for a missed dose.

Pediatric Patients

  • If XARELTO is taken once a day, the patient should take the missed dose as soon as possible once it is noticed, but only on the same day. If this is not possible, the patient should skip the dose and continue with the next dose as prescribed. The patient should not take two doses to make up for a missed dose.
  • If XARELTO is taken two times a day, the patient should take the missed morning dose as soon as possible once it is noticed. A missed morning dose may be taken together with the evening dose. A missed evening dose can only be taken in the same evening.
  • If XARELTO is taken three times a day, if a dose is missed, the patient should skip the missed dose and go back to the regular dosing schedule at the usual time without compensating for the missed dose.

On the following day, the patient should continue with their regular regimen.

2.6 Administration Options

For adult patients who are unable to swallow whole tablets, XARELTO tablets (all strengths) may be crushed and mixed with applesauce immediately prior to use and administered orally. After the administration of a crushed XARELTO 15 mg or 20 mg tablet, the dose should be immediately followed by food. Administration with food is not required for the 2.5 mg or 10 mg tablets [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Administration of XARELTO tablets via nasogastric (NG) tube or gastric feeding tube: After confirming gastric placement of the tube, XARELTO tablets (all strengths) may be crushed and suspended in 50 mL of water and administered via an NG tube or gastric feeding tube. Since rivaroxaban absorption is dependent on the site of drug release, avoid administration of XARELTO distal to the stomach which can result in reduced absorption and thereby, reduced drug exposure. After the administration of a crushed XARELTO 15 mg or 20 mg tablet, the dose should then be immediately followed by enteral feeding. Enteral feeding is not required following administration of the 2.5 mg or 10 mg tablets [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Crushed XARELTO tablets (all strengths) are stable in water and in applesauce for up to 4 hours. An in vitro compatibility study indicated that there is no adsorption of rivaroxaban from a water suspension of a crushed XARELTO tablet to PVC or silicone nasogastric (NG) tubing.

Administration of XARELTO suspension via NG tube or gastric feeding tube: XARELTO oral suspension may be given through NG or gastric feeding tube. After the administration, flush the feeding tube with water.

For the treatment or reduction in risk of recurrent VTE in pediatric patients, the dose should then be immediately followed by enteral feeding to increase absorption. For the thromboprophylaxis in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease who have undergone the Fontan procedure, the dose does not require to be followed by enteral feeding.

An in vitro compatibility study indicated that XARELTO suspension can be used with PVC, polyurethane or silicone NG tubing.

2.7 Preparation Instructions for Pharmacy of XARELTO for Oral Suspension

Do not add flavor as product is already flavored (sweet and creamy).

Reconstitute before dispensing:

  • Tap the bottle until all granules flow freely.
  • Add 150 mL of purified water for reconstitution.
  • Shake for 60 seconds. Check that all granules are wetted and the suspension is uniform.
  • Push the adaptor into bottleneck and recap bottle.
  • The suspension must be used within 60 days.
  • Write the "Discard after" date on the bottle and carton.

Dispensing Instructions:

  • Dispense in the original bottle.
  • Dispense the bottle upright with the syringes provided in the original carton.

Store reconstituted suspension at room temperature between 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Do not freeze.

It is recommended the pharmacist counsel the caregiver on proper use. Alert the patient or caregiver to read the Medication Guide and Instructions for Use.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

  • 2.5 mg tablets: Round, light yellow, and film-coated with a triangle pointing down above a "2.5" marked on one side and "Xa" on the other side
  • 10 mg tablets: Round, light red, biconvex and film-coated with a triangle pointing down above a "10" marked on one side and "Xa" on the other side
  • 15 mg tablets: Round, red, biconvex, and film-coated with a triangle pointing down above a "15" marked on one side and "Xa" on the other side
  • 20 mg tablets: Triangle-shaped, dark red, and film-coated with a triangle pointing down above a "20" marked on one side and "Xa" on the other side
  • For oral suspension: white to off-white granules; once reconstituted, provide flavored white to off-white opaque liquid with a concentration of 1 mg/mL.
  • Tablets: 2.5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, and 20 mg ( 3)
  • For oral suspension: 1 mg/mL once reconstituted ( 3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

XARELTO is contraindicated in patients with:

  • Active pathological bleeding ( 4)
  • Severe hypersensitivity reaction to XARELTO ( 4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Risk of bleeding: XARELTO can cause serious and fatal bleeding. An agent to reverse the activity of rivaroxaban is available. ( 5.2)
  • Pregnancy-related hemorrhage: Use XARELTO with caution in pregnant women due to the potential for obstetric hemorrhage and/or emergent delivery. ( 5.7, 8.1)
  • Prosthetic heart valves: XARELTO use not recommended. ( 5.8)
  • Increased Risk of Thrombosis in Patients with Triple Positive Antiphospholipid Syndrome: XARELTO use not recommended. ( 5.10)

5.1 Increased Risk of Thrombotic Events after Premature Discontinuation

Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including XARELTO, in the absence of adequate alternative anticoagulation increases the risk of thrombotic events. An increased rate of stroke was observed during the transition from XARELTO to warfarin in clinical trials in atrial fibrillation patients. If XARELTO is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.4) and Clinical Studies (14.1)] .

5.2 Risk of Bleeding

XARELTO increases the risk of bleeding and can cause serious or fatal bleeding. In deciding whether to prescribe XARELTO to patients at increased risk of bleeding, the risk of thrombotic events should be weighed against the risk of bleeding.

Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss and consider the need for blood replacement. Discontinue XARELTO in patients with active pathological hemorrhage. The terminal elimination half-life of rivaroxaban is 5 to 9 hours in healthy subjects aged 20 to 45 years.

Concomitant use of other drugs that impair hemostasis increases the risk of bleeding. These include aspirin, P2Y 12 platelet inhibitors, dual antiplatelet therapy, other antithrombotic agents, fibrinolytic therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [see Drug Interactions (7.4)] , selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.

Concomitant use of drugs that are known combined P-gp and strong CYP3A inhibitors increases rivaroxaban exposure and may increase bleeding risk [see Drug Interactions (7.2)] .

Risk of Hemorrhage in Acutely Ill Medical Patients at High Risk of Bleeding

Acutely ill medical patients with the following conditions are at increased risk of bleeding with the use of XARELTO for primary VTE prophylaxis: history of bronchiectasis, pulmonary cavitation, or pulmonary hemorrhage, active cancer (i.e., undergoing acute, in-hospital cancer treatment), active gastroduodenal ulcer in the three months prior to treatment, history of bleeding in the three months prior to treatment, or dual antiplatelet therapy. XARELTO is not for use for primary VTE prophylaxis in these hospitalized, acutely ill medical patients at high risk of bleeding.

Reversal of Anticoagulant Effect

An agent to reverse the anti-factor Xa activity of rivaroxaban is available. Because of high plasma protein binding, rivaroxaban is not dialyzable [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Protamine sulfate and vitamin K are not expected to affect the anticoagulant activity of rivaroxaban. Use of procoagulant reversal agents, such as prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), activated prothrombin complex concentrate or recombinant factor VIIa, may be considered but has not been evaluated in clinical efficacy and safety studies. Monitoring for the anticoagulation effect of rivaroxaban using a clotting test (PT, INR or aPTT) or anti-factor Xa (FXa) activity is not recommended.

5.3 Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia or Puncture

When neuraxial anesthesia (spinal/epidural anesthesia) or spinal puncture is employed, patients treated with anticoagulant agents for prevention of thromboembolic complications are at risk of developing an epidural or spinal hematoma which can result in long-term or permanent paralysis [see Boxed Warning] .

To reduce the potential risk of bleeding associated with the concurrent use of XARELTO and epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or spinal puncture, consider the pharmacokinetic profile of XARELTO [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Placement or removal of an epidural catheter or lumbar puncture is best performed when the anticoagulant effect of XARELTO is low; however, the exact timing to reach a sufficiently low anticoagulant effect in each patient is not known.

An indwelling epidural or intrathecal catheter should not be removed before at least 2 half-lives have elapsed (i.e., 18 hours in young patients aged 20 to 45 years and 26 hours in elderly patients aged 60 to 76 years), after the last administration of XARELTO [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . The next XARELTO dose should not be administered earlier than 6 hours after the removal of the catheter. If traumatic puncture occurs, delay the administration of XARELTO for 24 hours.

Should the physician decide to administer anticoagulation in the context of epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or lumbar puncture, monitor frequently to detect any signs or symptoms of neurological impairment, such as midline back pain, sensory and motor deficits (numbness, tingling, or weakness in lower limbs), bowel and/or bladder dysfunction. Instruct patients to immediately report if they experience any of the above signs or symptoms. If signs or symptoms of spinal hematoma are suspected, initiate urgent diagnosis and treatment including consideration for spinal cord decompression even though such treatment may not prevent or reverse neurological sequelae.

5.4 Use in Patients with Renal Impairment

Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

Periodically assess renal function as clinically indicated (i.e., more frequently in situations in which renal function may decline) and adjust therapy accordingly [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)] . Consider dose adjustment or discontinuation of XARELTO in patients who develop acute renal failure while on XARELTO [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), Pulmonary Embolism (PE), and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and of PE

In patients with CrCl <30 mL/min, rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects are increased compared to patients with normal renal function. There are limited clinical data in patients with CrCl 15 to <30 mL/min; therefore, observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in these patients. There are no clinical data in patients with CrCl <15 mL/min (including patients on dialysis); therefore, avoid the use of XARELTO in these patients.

Discontinue XARELTO in patients who develop acute renal failure while on treatment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)] .

Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery

In patients with CrCl <30 mL/min, rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects are increased compared to patients with normal renal function. There are limited clinical data in patients with CrCl 15 to <30 mL/min; therefore, observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in these patients. There are no clinical data in patients with CrCl <15 mL/min (including patients on dialysis); therefore, avoid the use of XARELTO in these patients.

Discontinue XARELTO in patients who develop acute renal failure while on treatment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism in Acutely Ill Medical Patients at Risk for Thromboembolic Complications Not at High Risk of Bleeding

In patients with CrCl <30 mL/min, rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects are increased compared to patients with normal renal function. There are limited clinical data in patients with CrCl 15 to <30 mL/min; therefore, observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in these patients. There are no clinical data in patients with CrCl <15 mL/min (including patients on dialysis); therefore, avoid the use of XARELTO in these patients.

Discontinue XARELTO in patients who develop acute renal failure while on treatment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

Pediatric Patients

There are limited clinical data in pediatric patients 1 year or older with moderate or severe renal impairment (eGFR <50 mL/min/1.73 m 2); therefore, avoid the use of XARELTO in these patients.

There are no clinical data in pediatric patients younger than 1 year with serum creatinine results above 97.5 th percentile; therefore, avoid the use of XARELTO in these patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)] .

5.5 Use in Patients with Hepatic Impairment

No clinical data are available for adult patients with severe hepatic impairment.

Avoid use of XARELTO in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) and severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment or with any hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy since drug exposure and bleeding risk may be increased [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)] .

No clinical data are available in pediatric patients with hepatic impairment.

5.6 Use with P-gp and Strong CYP3A Inhibitors or Inducers

Avoid concomitant use of XARELTO with known combined P-gp and strong CYP3A inhibitors [see Drug Interactions (7.2)] .

Avoid concomitant use of XARELTO with drugs that are known combined P-gp and strong CYP3A inducers [see Drug Interactions (7.3)] .

5.7 Risk of Pregnancy-Related Hemorrhage

In pregnant women, XARELTO should be used only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the mother and fetus. XARELTO dosing in pregnancy has not been studied. The anticoagulant effect of XARELTO cannot be monitored with standard laboratory testing. Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms suggesting blood loss (e.g., a drop in hemoglobin and/or hematocrit, hypotension, or fetal distress) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)] .

5.8 Patients with Prosthetic Heart Valves

On the basis of the GALILEO study, use of XARELTO is not recommended in patients who have had transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) because patients randomized to XARELTO experienced higher rates of death and bleeding compared to those randomized to an anti-platelet regimen. The safety and efficacy of XARELTO have not been studied in patients with other prosthetic heart valves or other valve procedures. Use of XARELTO is not recommended in patients with prosthetic heart valves.

5.9 Acute PE in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients or Patients Who Require Thrombolysis or Pulmonary Embolectomy

Initiation of XARELTO is not recommended acutely as an alternative to unfractionated heparin in patients with pulmonary embolism who present with hemodynamic instability or who may receive thrombolysis or pulmonary embolectomy.

5.10 Increased Risk of Thrombosis in Patients with Triple Positive Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs), including XARELTO, are not recommended for use in patients with triple-positive antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). For patients with APS (especially those who are triple positive [positive for lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibodies]), treatment with DOACs has been associated with increased rates of recurrent thrombotic events compared with vitamin K antagonist therapy.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following clinically significant adverse reactions are also discussed in other sections of the labeling:

  • The most common adverse reaction (>5%) in adult patients was bleeding. ( 6.1)
  • The most common adverse reactions (>10%) in pediatric patients were bleeding, cough, vomiting, and gastroenteritis. ( 6.1)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-800-526-7736 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

During clinical development for the approved indications, 34,947 adult patients were exposed to XARELTO.

Hemorrhage

The most common adverse reactions with XARELTO were bleeding complications [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .

Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

In the ROCKET AF trial, the most frequent adverse reactions associated with permanent drug discontinuation were bleeding events, with incidence rates of 4.3% for XARELTO vs. 3.1% for warfarin. The incidence of discontinuations for non-bleeding adverse events was similar in both treatment groups.

Table 5 shows the number of patients experiencing various types of bleeding events in the ROCKET AF trial.

Table 5: Bleeding Events in ROCKET AF Major bleeding events within each subcategory were counted once per patient, but patients may have contributed events to multiple subcategories. These events occurred during treatment or within 2 days of stopping treatment.- On Treatment Plus 2 Days
Parameter XARELTO
N=7111
n (%/year)
Warfarin
N=7125
n (%/year)
XARELTO vs. Warfarin
HR
(95% CI)
Abbreviations: HR = Hazard Ratio, CI = Confidence interval, CRNM = Clinically Relevant Non-Major.
Major Bleeding Defined as clinically overt bleeding associated with a decrease in hemoglobin of ≥2 g/dL, a transfusion of ≥2 units of packed red blood cells or whole blood, bleeding at a critical site, or with a fatal outcome. 395 (3.6) 386 (3.5) 1.04 (0.90, 1.20)
  Intracranial Hemorrhage (ICH) Intracranial bleeding events included intraparenchymal, intraventricular, subdural, subarachnoid and/or epidural hematoma. 55 (0.5) 84 (0.7) 0.67 (0.47, 0.93)
    Hemorrhagic Stroke Hemorrhagic stroke in this table specifically refers to non-traumatic intraparenchymal and/or intraventricular hematoma in patients on treatment plus 2 days. 36 (0.3) 58 (0.5) 0.63 (0.42, 0.96)
    Other ICH 19 (0.2) 26 (0.2) 0.74 (0.41, 1.34)
  Gastrointestinal (GI) Gastrointestinal bleeding events included upper GI, lower GI, and rectal bleeding. 221 (2.0) 140 (1.2) 1.61 (1.30, 1.99)
  Fatal Bleeding Fatal bleeding is adjudicated death with the primary cause of death from bleeding. 27 (0.2) 55 (0.5) 0.50 (0.31, 0.79)
    ICH 24 (0.2) 42 (0.4) 0.58 (0.35, 0.96)
    Non-intracranial 3 (0.0) 13 (0.1) 0.23 (0.07, 0.82)

Figure 1 shows the risk of major bleeding events across major subgroups.

Note: The figure above presents effects in various subgroups all of which are baseline characteristics and all of which were pre-specified (diabetic status was not pre-specified in the subgroup but was a criterion for the CHADS2 score). The 95% confidence limits that are shown do not take into account how many comparisons were made, nor do they reflect the effect of a particular factor after adjustment for all other factors. Apparent homogeneity or heterogeneity among groups should not be over-interpreted.
Figure 1: Risk of Major Bleeding Events by Baseline Characteristics in ROCKET AF – On Treatment Plus 2 Days

Figure 1

Figure 1

Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and/or Pulmonary Embolism (PE)

EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE Studies

In the pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE clinical studies, the most frequent adverse reactions leading to permanent drug discontinuation were bleeding events, with XARELTO vs. enoxaparin/Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) incidence rates of 1.7% vs. 1.5%, respectively. The mean duration of treatment was 208 days for XARELTO-treated patients and 204 days for enoxaparin/VKA-treated patients.

Table 6 shows the number of patients experiencing major bleeding events in the pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies.

Table 6: Bleeding Events Bleeding event occurred after randomization and up to 2 days after the last dose of study drug. Although a patient may have had 2 or more events, the patient is counted only once in a category. in the Pooled Analysis of EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE Studies
Parameter XARELTO Treatment schedule in EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies: XARELTO 15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks followed by 20 mg once daily; enoxaparin/VKA [enoxaparin: 1 mg/kg twice daily, VKA: individually titrated doses to achieve a target INR of 2.5 (range: 2.0–3.0)]
N=4130
n (%)
Enoxaparin/VKA

N=4116
n (%)
Major bleeding event 40 (1.0) 72 (1.7)
  Fatal bleeding 3 (<0.1) 8 (0.2)
    Intracranial 2 (<0.1) 4 (<0.1)
  Non-fatal critical organ bleeding 10 (0.2) 29 (0.7)
    Intracranial Treatment-emergent major bleeding events with at least >2 subjects in any pooled treatment group 3 (<0.1) 10 (0.2)
    Retroperitoneal
1 (<0.1) 8 (0.2)
    Intraocular
3 (<0.1) 2 (<0.1)
    Intra-articular
0 4 (<0.1)
  Non-fatal non-critical organ bleeding Major bleeding which is not fatal or in a critical organ, but resulting in a decrease in Hb ≥ 2 g/dL and/or transfusion of ≥2 units of whole blood or packed red blood cells 27 (0.7) 37 (0.9)
  Decrease in Hb ≥ 2 g/dL 28 (0.7) 42 (1.0)
  Transfusion of ≥2 units of whole blood or packed red blood cells 18 (0.4) 25 (0.6)
Clinically relevant non-major bleeding 357 (8.6) 357 (8.7)
Any bleeding 1169 (28.3) 1153 (28.0)

Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and/or PE

EINSTEIN CHOICE Study

In the EINSTEIN CHOICE clinical study, the most frequent adverse reactions associated with permanent drug discontinuation were bleeding events, with incidence rates of 1% for XARELTO 10 mg, 2% for XARELTO 20 mg, and 1% for acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) 100 mg. The mean duration of treatment was 293 days for XARELTO 10 mg-treated patients and 286 days for aspirin 100 mg-treated patients.

Table 7 shows the number of patients experiencing bleeding events in the EINSTEIN CHOICE study.

Table 7: Bleeding Events Bleeding event occurred after the first dose and up to 2 days after the last dose of study drug. Although a patient may have had 2 or more events, the patient is counted only once in a category. in EINSTEIN CHOICE
Parameter XARELTO Treatment schedule: XARELTO 10 mg once daily or aspirin 100 mg once daily.
10 mg
N=1127
n (%)
Acetylsalicylic Acid (aspirin)
100 mg
N=1131
n (%)
Major bleeding event 5 (0.4) 3 (0.3)
  Fatal bleeding 0 1 (<0.1)
  Non-fatal critical organ bleeding 2 (0.2) 1 (<0.1)
  Non-fatal non-critical organ bleeding Major bleeding which is not fatal or in a critical organ, but resulting in a decrease in Hb ≥ 2 g/dL and/or transfusion of ≥ 2 units of whole blood or packed red blood cells. 3 (0.3) 1 (<0.1)
Clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding Bleeding which was clinically overt, did not meet the criteria for major bleeding, but was associated with medical intervention, unscheduled contact with a physician, temporary cessation of treatment, discomfort for the patient, or impairment of activities of daily life. 22 (2.0) 20 (1.8)
Any bleeding 151 (13.4) 138 (12.2)

In the EINSTEIN CHOICE study, there was an increased incidence of bleeding, including major and CRNM bleeding in the XARELTO 20 mg group compared to the XARELTO 10 mg or aspirin 100 mg groups.

Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery

In the RECORD clinical trials, the overall incidence rate of adverse reactions leading to permanent treatment discontinuation was 3.7% with XARELTO.

The rates of major bleeding events and any bleeding events observed in patients in the RECORD clinical trials are shown in Table 8.

Table 8: Bleeding Events Bleeding events occurring any time following the first dose of double-blind study medication (which may have been prior to administration of active drug) until two days after the last dose of double-blind study medication. Patients may have more than one event. in Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Replacement Surgeries (RECORD 1–3)
XARELTO 10 mg Enoxaparin Includes the placebo-controlled period for RECORD 2, enoxaparin dosing was 40 mg once daily (RECORD 1–3)
Total treated patients N=4487
n (%)
N=4524
n (%)
  Major bleeding event 14 (0.3) 9 (0.2)
    Fatal bleeding 1 (<0.1) 0
    Bleeding into a critical organ 2 (<0.1) 3 (0.1)
    Bleeding that required re-operation 7 (0.2) 5 (0.1)
    Extra-surgical site bleeding requiring transfusion of >2 units of whole blood or packed cells 4 (0.1) 1 (<0.1)
  Any bleeding event Includes major bleeding events 261 (5.8) 251 (5.6)
Hip Surgery Studies N=3281
n (%)
N=3298
n (%)
  Major bleeding event 7 (0.2) 3 (0.1)
    Fatal bleeding 1 (<0.1) 0
    Bleeding into a critical organ 1 (<0.1) 1 (<0.1)
    Bleeding that required re-operation 2 (0.1) 1 (<0.1)
    Extra-surgical site bleeding requiring transfusion of >2 units of whole blood or packed cells 3 (0.1) 1 (<0.1)
  Any bleeding event
201 (6.1) 191 (5.8)
Knee Surgery Study N=1206
n (%)
N=1226
n (%)
  Major bleeding event 7 (0.6) 6 (0.5)
    Fatal bleeding 0 0
    Bleeding into a critical organ 1 (0.1) 2 (0.2)
    Bleeding that required re-operation 5 (0.4) 4 (0.3)
    Extra-surgical site bleeding requiring transfusion of >2 units of whole blood or packed cells 1 (0.1) 0
  Any bleeding event
60 (5.0) 60 (4.9)

Following XARELTO treatment, the majority of major bleeding complications (≥60%) occurred during the first week after surgery.

Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism in Acutely Ill Medical Patients at Risk for Thromboembolic Complications Not at High Risk of Bleeding

In the MAGELLAN study, the most frequent adverse reactions associated with permanent drug discontinuation were bleeding events. Cases of pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary hemorrhage with bronchiectasis were observed. Patients with bronchiectasis/pulmonary cavitation, active cancer (i.e., undergoing acute, in-hospital cancer treatment), dual antiplatelet therapy or active gastroduodenal ulcer or any bleeding in the previous three months all had an excess of bleeding with XARELTO compared with enoxaparin/placebo and are excluded from all MAGELLAN data presented in Table 9. The incidence of bleeding leading to drug discontinuation was 2.5% for XARELTO vs. 1.4% for enoxaparin/placebo.

Table 9 shows the number of patients experiencing various types of bleeding events in the MAGELLAN study.

Table 9: Bleeding Events in MAGELLAN Patients at high risk of bleeding (i.e. bronchiectasis/pulmonary cavitation, active cancer, dual antiplatelet therapy or active gastroduodenal ulcer or any bleeding in the previous three months) were excluded. Study–Safety Analysis Set - On Treatment Plus 2 Days
MAGELLAN Study Patients received either XARELTO or placebo once daily for 35 ±4 days starting in hospital and continuing post hospital discharge or received enoxaparin or placebo once daily for 10 ±4 days in the hospital. XARELTO 10 mg
N=3218
n (%)
Enoxaparin 40 mg /placebo
N=3229
n (%)
Major bleeding Defined as clinically overt bleeding associated with a drop in hemoglobin of ≥2 g/dL, a transfusion of ≥2 units of packed red blood cells or whole blood, bleeding at a critical site, or with a fatal outcome. Major bleeding events within each subcategory were counted once per patient, but patients may have contributed events to multiple subcategories. These events occurred during treatment or within 2 days of stopping treatment. 22 (0.7) 15 (0.5)
  Critical site bleeding 7 (0.2) 4 (0.1)
  Fatal bleeding Fatal bleeding is adjudicated death with the primary cause of death from bleeding. 3 (<0.1) 1 (<0.1)
Clinically relevant non-major bleeding events (CRNM) 93 (2.9) 34 (1.1)

Reduction of Risk of Major Cardiovascular Events in Patients with CAD

In the COMPASS trial overall, the most frequent adverse reactions associated with permanent drug discontinuation were bleeding events, with incidence rates of 2.7% for XARELTO 2.5 mg twice daily vs. 1.2% for placebo on background therapy for all patients with aspirin 100 mg once daily. The incidences of important bleeding events in the CAD and PAD populations in COMPASS were similar.

Table 10 shows the number of patients experiencing various types of major bleeding events in the COMPASS trial.

Table 10: Major Bleeding Events in COMPASS - On Treatment Plus 2 Days Major bleeding events within each subcategory were counted once per patient, but patients may have contributed events to multiple subcategories. These events occurred during treatment or within 2 days of stopping treatment in the safety analysis set in COMPASS patients.
Parameter XARELTO Treatment schedule: XARELTO 2.5 mg twice daily or placebo. All patients received background therapy with aspirin 100 mg once daily.
N=9134
n (%/year)
Placebo

N=9107
n (%/year)
XARELTO vs. Placebo
HR (95 % CI)
CI: confidence interval; HR: hazard ratio; ISTH: International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Modified ISTH Major Bleeding Defined as i) fatal bleeding, or ii) symptomatic bleeding in a critical area or organ, such as intraarticular, intramuscular with compartment syndrome, intraspinal, intracranial, intraocular, respiratory, pericardial, liver, pancreas, retroperitoneal, adrenal gland or kidney; or iii) bleeding into the surgical site requiring reoperation, or iv) bleeding leading to hospitalization. 263 (1.6) 144 (0.9) 1.8 (1.5, 2.3)
  • Fatal bleeding event
      Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)
      Non-intracranial
12 (<0.1)
6 (<0.1)
6 (<0.1)
8 (<0.1)
3 (<0.1)
5 (<0.1)
1.5 (0.6, 3.7)
2.0 (0.5, 8.0)
1.2 (0.4, 4.0)
  • Symptomatic bleeding in critical organ (non-fatal)
  • ICH (fatal and non-fatal)
       Hemorrhagic Stroke
      Other ICH
58 (0.3)
23 (0.1)
18 (0.1)
6 (<0.1)
43 (0.3)
21 (0.1)
13 (<0.1)
9 (<0.1)
1.4 (0.9, 2.0)
1.1 (0.6, 2.0)
1.4 (0.7, 2.8)
0.7 (0.2, 1.9)
  • Bleeding into the surgical site requiring reoperation (non-fatal, not in critical organ)
7 (<0.1) 6 (<0.1) 1.2 (0.4, 3.5)
  • Bleeding leading to hospitalization (non-fatal, not in critical organ, not requiring reoperation)
188 (1.1) 91 (0.5) 2.1 (1.6, 2.7)
Major GI bleeding 117 (0.7) 49 (0.3) 2.4 (1.7, 3.4)

Reduction of Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD), Including Patients after Lower Extremity Revascularization due to Symptomatic PAD

The incidence of premature permanent discontinuation due to bleeding events for XARELTO 2.5 mg twice daily vs. placebo on background therapy with aspirin 100 mg once daily in VOYAGER was 4.1% vs. 1.6% and in COMPASS PAD was 2.7% vs. 1.3%, respectively.

Table 11 shows the number of patients experiencing various types of TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) major bleeding events in the VOYAGER trial. The most common site of bleeding was gastrointestinal.

Table 11: Major Bleeding Events Major bleeding events within each subcategory were counted once per patient, but patients may have contributed events to multiple subcategories. in VOYAGER- On Treatment Plus 2 Days
XARELTO Treatment schedule: XARELTO 2.5 mg twice daily or placebo. All patients received background therapy with aspirin 100 mg once daily.
N=3256
Placebo

N=3248
XARELTO vs. Placebo
HR (95 % CI)
Parameter n (%) Event rate
%/year
n (%) Event rate
%/year
CABG: Coronary artery bypass graft; CI: confidence interval; HR: hazard ratio; TIMI: Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Bleeding Criteria
TIMI Major Bleeding
(CABG/non-CABG)
62 (1.9) 0.96 44 (1.4) 0.67 1.4 (1.0, 2.1)
  Fatal bleeding 6 (0.2) 0.09 6 (0.2) 0.09 1.0 (0.3, 3.2)
  Intracranial bleeding 13 (0.4) 0.20 17 (0.5) 0.26 0.8 (0.4, 1.6)
  Clinically overt signs of hemorrhage associated with a drop in hemoglobin of ≥5 g/dL or drop in hematocrit of ≥15% 46 (1.4) 0.71 24 (0.7) 0.36 1.9 (1.2, 3.2)

Other Adverse Reactions

Non-hemorrhagic adverse reactions reported in ≥1% of XARELTO-treated patients in the EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies are shown in Table 12.

Table 12: Other Adverse Reactions Adverse reaction with Relative Risk >1.5 for XARELTO versus comparator Reported by ≥1% of XARELTO-Treated Patients in EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE Studies
Body System
Adverse Reaction
EINSTEIN DVT Study XARELTO 20 mg
N=1718
n (%)
Enoxaparin/VKA
N=1711
n (%)
Gastrointestinal disorders
  Abdominal pain 46 (2.7) 25 (1.5)
General disorders and administration site conditions
  Fatigue 24 (1.4) 15 (0.9)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
  Back pain 50 (2.9) 31 (1.8)
  Muscle spasm 23 (1.3) 13 (0.8)
Nervous system disorders
  Dizziness 38 (2.2) 22 (1.3)
Psychiatric disorders
  Anxiety 24 (1.4) 11 (0.6)
  Depression 20 (1.2) 10 (0.6)
  Insomnia 28 (1.6) 18 (1.1)
EINSTEIN PE Study XARELTO 20 mg
N=2412
n (%)
Enoxaparin/VKA
N=2405
n (%)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
  Pruritus 53 (2.2) 27 (1.1)

Non-hemorrhagic adverse reactions reported in ≥1% of XARELTO-treated patients in RECORD 1–3 studies are shown in Table 13.

Table 13: Other Adverse Drug Reactions Adverse reaction occurring any time following the first dose of double-blind medication, which may have been prior to administration of active drug, until two days after the last dose of double-blind study medication Reported by ≥1% of XARELTO-Treated Patients in RECORD 1–3 Studies
Body System
Adverse Reaction
XARELTO
10 mg
N=4487
n (%)
Enoxaparin Includes the placebo-controlled period of RECORD 2, enoxaparin dosing was 40 mg once daily (RECORD 1–3)
N=4524
n (%)
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications
  Wound secretion 125 (2.8) 89 (2.0)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
  Pain in extremity 74 (1.7) 55 (1.2)
  Muscle spasm 52 (1.2) 32 (0.7)
Nervous system disorders
  Syncope 55 (1.2) 32 (0.7)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
  Pruritus 96 (2.1) 79 (1.8)
  Blister 63 (1.4) 40 (0.9)

Pediatric Patients

Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism and Reduction in Risk of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Pediatric Patients

The safety assessment is based on data from the EINSTEIN Junior Phase 3 study in 491 patients from birth to less than 18 years of age. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive body weight-adjusted doses of XARELTO or comparator (unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux or VKA).

Discontinuation due to bleeding events occurred in 6 (1.8%) patients in the XARELTO group and 3 (1.9%) patients in the comparator group.

Table 14 shows the number of patients experiencing bleeding events in the EINSTEIN Junior study. In female patients who had experienced menarche, ages 12 to <18 years of age, menorrhagia occurred in 23 (27%) female patients in the XARELTO group and 5 (10%) female patients in the comparator group.

Table 14: Bleeding Events in EINSTEIN Junior Study – Safety Analysis Set - Main Treatment Period These events occurred after randomization until 3 months of treatment (1 month for patients <2 years with central venous catheter-related VTE (CVC-VTE). Patients may have more than one event.
Parameter XARELTO Treatment schedule: body weight-adjusted doses of XARELTO; randomized 2:1 (XARELTO: Comparator).
N=329
n (%)
Comparator Group Unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux or VKA.
N=162
n (%)
Major bleeding Defined as clinically overt bleeding associated with a decrease in hemoglobin of ≥2 g/dL, a transfusion of ≥2 units of packed red blood cells or whole blood, bleeding at a critical site, or with a fatal outcome. 0 2 (1.2)
Clinically relevant non-major bleeding Defined as clinically overt bleeding, which did not meet the criteria for major bleeding, but was associated with medical intervention, unscheduled contact with a physician, temporary cessation of treatment, discomfort for the patient, or impairment of activities of daily life. 10 (3.0) 1 (0.6)
Trivial bleeding 113 (34.3) 44 (27.2)
Any bleeding 119 (36.2) 45 (27.8)

Non-bleeding adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of XARELTO-treated patients are shown in Table 15.

Table 15: Other Adverse Reactions Adverse reaction with Relative Risk >1.5 for XARELTO versus comparator. Reported in XARELTO-Treated Patients by ≥5% in EINSTEIN Junior Study
Adverse Reaction XARELTO
N=329
n (%)
Comparator Group
N=162
n (%)
Pain in extremity 23 (7) 7 (4.3)
Fatigue The following terms were combined: fatigue, asthenia. 23 (7) 7 (4.3)

A clinically relevant adverse reaction in XARELTO-treated patients was vomiting (10.6% in the XARELTO group vs 8% in the comparator group).

Thromboprophylaxis in Pediatric Patients with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) after the Fontan Procedure

The data below are based on Part B of the UNIVERSE study which was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of XARELTO for thromboprophylaxis in 98 children with CHD after the Fontan procedure who took at least one dose of study drug. Patients in Part B were randomized 2:1 to receive either body weight-adjusted doses of XARELTO or aspirin (approximately 5 mg/kg).

Discontinuation due to bleeding events occurred in 1 (1.6%) patient in the XARELTO group and no patients in the aspirin group.

Table 16 shows the number of patients experiencing bleeding events in the UNIVERSE study.

Table 16: Bleeding Events in UNIVERSE Study - Safety Analysis Set - On Treatment Plus 2 Days
Parameter XARELTO Treatment schedule: body weight-adjusted doses of XARELTO or aspirin (approximately 5 mg/kg); randomized 2:1 (XARELTO: Aspirin).
N=64
n (%)
Aspirin

N=34
n (%)
Major Bleeding Defined as clinically overt bleeding associated with a decrease in hemoglobin of ≥2 g/dL, a transfusion of the equivalent of ≥2 units of packed red blood cells or whole blood, bleeding at a critical site, or with a fatal outcome. 1 (1.6) 0
  Epistaxis leading to transfusion 1 (1.6) 0
Clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding Defined as clinically overt bleeding, which did not meet the criteria for major bleeding, but was associated with medical intervention, unscheduled contact with a physician, temporary cessation of treatment, discomfort for the patient, or impairment of activities of daily life. 4 (6.3) 3 (8.8)
Trivial bleeding 21 (32.8) 12 (35.3)
Any bleeding 23 (35.9) 14 (41.2)

Non-bleeding adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of XARELTO-treated patients are shown in Table 17.

Table 17: Other Adverse Reactions Adverse reaction with Relative Risk >1.5 for XARELTO versus aspirin. Reported by ≥5% of XARELTO-Treated Patients in UNIVERSE Study (Part B)
Adverse Reaction XARELTO
N=64
n (%)
Aspirin
N=34
n (%)
Cough 10 (15.6) 3 (8.8)
Vomiting 9 (14.1) 3 (8.8)
Gastroenteritis The following terms were combined: Gastroenteritis: gastroenteritis, gastroenteritis viral Rash: rash, rash maculo-papular, viral rash 8 (12.5) 1 (2.9)
Rash
6 (9.4) 2 (5.9)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of XARELTO. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Blood and lymphatic system disorders: agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia

Hepatobiliary disorders: jaundice, cholestasis, hepatitis (including hepatocellular injury)

Immune system disorders: hypersensitivity, anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic shock, angioedema

Nervous system disorders: hemiparesis

Renal disorders: Anticoagulant-related nephropathy

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Eosinophilic pneumonia

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

  • Avoid combined P-gp and strong CYP3A inhibitors and inducers ( 7.2, 7.3)
  • Anticoagulants: Avoid concomitant use ( 7.4)

7.1 General Inhibition and Induction Properties

Rivaroxaban is a substrate of CYP3A4/5, CYP2J2, and the P-gp and ATP-binding cassette G2 (ABCG2) transporters. Combined P-gp and strong CYP3A inhibitors increase exposure to rivaroxaban and may increase the risk of bleeding. Combined P-gp and strong CYP3A inducers decrease exposure to rivaroxaban and may increase the risk of thromboembolic events.

7.2 Drugs that Inhibit Cytochrome P450 3A Enzymes and Drug Transport Systems

Interaction with Combined P-gp and Strong CYP3A Inhibitors

Avoid concomitant administration of XARELTO with known combined P-gp and strong CYP3A inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole and ritonavir) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Although clarithromycin is a combined P-gp and strong CYP3A inhibitor, pharmacokinetic data suggests that no precautions are necessary with concomitant administration with XARELTO as the change in exposure is unlikely to affect the bleeding risk [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Interaction with Combined P-gp and Moderate CYP3A Inhibitors in Patients with Renal Impairment

XARELTO should not be used in patients with CrCl 15 to <80 mL/min who are receiving concomitant combined P-gp and moderate CYP3A inhibitors (e.g., erythromycin) unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

7.3 Drugs that Induce Cytochrome P450 3A Enzymes and Drug Transport Systems

Avoid concomitant use of XARELTO with drugs that are combined P-gp and strong CYP3A inducers (e.g., carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampin, St. John's wort) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

7.4 Anticoagulants and NSAIDs/Aspirin

Coadministration of enoxaparin, warfarin, aspirin, clopidogrel and chronic NSAID use may increase the risk of bleeding [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Avoid concurrent use of XARELTO with other anticoagulants due to increased bleeding risk unless benefit outweighs risk. Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss if patients are treated concomitantly with aspirin, other platelet aggregation inhibitors, or NSAIDs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

  • Renal impairment: Avoid or adjust dose ( 8.6)
  • Hepatic impairment: Avoid use in Child-Pugh B and C hepatic impairment or hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy ( 8.7)

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

The limited available data on XARELTO in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. Use XARELTO with caution in pregnant patients because of the potential for pregnancy related hemorrhage and/or emergent delivery. The anticoagulant effect of XARELTO cannot be reliably monitored with standard laboratory testing. Consider the benefits and risks of XARELTO for the mother and possible risks to the fetus when prescribing XARELTO to a pregnant woman [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.7)] .

Adverse outcomes in pregnancy occur regardless of the health of the mother or the use of medications. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk

Pregnancy is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism and that risk is increased in women with inherited or acquired thrombophilias. Pregnant women with thromboembolic disease have an increased risk of maternal complications including pre-eclampsia. Maternal thromboembolic disease increases the risk for intrauterine growth restriction, placental abruption and early and late pregnancy loss.

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions

Based on the pharmacologic activity of Factor Xa inhibitors and the potential to cross the placenta, bleeding may occur at any site in the fetus and/or neonate.

Labor or Delivery

All patients receiving anticoagulants, including pregnant women, are at risk for bleeding and this risk may be increased during labor or delivery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. The risk of bleeding should be balanced with the risk of thrombotic events when considering the use of XARELTO in this setting.

Data

Human Data

There are no adequate or well-controlled studies of XARELTO in pregnant women, and dosing for pregnant women has not been established. Post-marketing experience is currently insufficient to determine a rivaroxaban-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. In an in vitro placenta perfusion model, unbound rivaroxaban was rapidly transferred across the human placenta.

Animal Data

Rivaroxaban crosses the placenta in animals. Rivaroxaban increased fetal toxicity (increased resorptions, decreased number of live fetuses, and decreased fetal body weight) when pregnant rabbits were given oral doses of ≥10 mg/kg rivaroxaban during the period of organogenesis. This dose corresponds to about 4 times the human exposure of unbound drug, based on AUC comparisons at the highest recommended human dose of 20 mg/day. Fetal body weights decreased when pregnant rats were given oral doses of 120 mg/kg during the period of organogenesis. This dose corresponds to about 14 times the human exposure of unbound drug. In rats, peripartal maternal bleeding and maternal and fetal death occurred at the rivaroxaban dose of 40 mg/kg (about 6 times maximum human exposure of the unbound drug at the human dose of 20 mg/day).

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Rivaroxaban has been detected in human milk. There are insufficient data to determine the effects of rivaroxaban on the breastfed child or on milk production. Rivaroxaban and/or its metabolites were present in the milk of rats. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for XARELTO and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from XARELTO or from the underlying maternal condition (see Data) .

Data

Animal Data

Following a single oral administration of 3 mg/kg of radioactive [ 14C]-rivaroxaban to lactating rats between Day 8 to 10 postpartum, the concentration of total radioactivity was determined in milk samples collected up to 32 hours post-dose. The estimated amount of radioactivity excreted with milk within 32 hours after administration was 2.1% of the maternal dose.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Females of reproductive potential requiring anticoagulation should discuss pregnancy planning with their physician.

The risk of clinically significant uterine bleeding, potentially requiring gynecological surgical interventions, identified with oral anticoagulants including XARELTO should be assessed in females of reproductive potential and those with abnormal uterine bleeding.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of XARELTO have been established in pediatric patients from birth to less than 18 years for the treatment of VTE and the reduction in risk of recurrent VTE. Use of XARELTO is supported in these age groups by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of XARELTO in adults with additional pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy data from a multicenter, prospective, open-label, active-controlled randomized study in 500 pediatric patients from birth to less than 18 years of age. XARELTO was not studied and therefore dosing cannot be reliably determined or recommended in children less than 6 months who were less than 37 weeks of gestation at birth; had less than 10 days of oral feeding, or had a body weight of less than 2.6 kg [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14.8)] .

The safety and effectiveness of XARELTO have been established for use in pediatric patients aged 2 years and older with congenital heart disease who have undergone the Fontan procedure. Use of XARELTO is supported in these age groups by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of XARELTO in adults with additional data from a multicenter, prospective, open-label, active controlled study in 112 pediatric patients to evaluate the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic properties of XARELTO and the safety and efficacy of XARELTO when used for thromboprophylaxis for 12 months in children with single ventricle physiology who had the Fontan procedure [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14.9)] .

Clinical studies that evaluated safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data support the use of XARELTO 10 mg, 15 mg, and 20 mg tablets in pediatric patients. For the XARELTO 2.5 mg tablets, there are no safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data to support the use in pediatric patients. Therefore, XARELTO 2.5 mg tablets are not recommended for use in pediatric patients.

Although not all adverse reactions identified in the adult population have been observed in clinical trials of children and adolescent patients, the same warnings and precautions for adults should be considered for children and adolescents.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the total number of adult patients in clinical trials for the approved indications of XARELTO (N=64,943 patients), 64 percent were 65 years and over, with 27 percent 75 years and over. In clinical trials the efficacy of XARELTO in the elderly (65 years or older) was similar to that seen in patients younger than 65 years. Both thrombotic and bleeding event rates were higher in these older patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14)] .

8.6 Renal Impairment

In pharmacokinetic studies, compared to healthy adult subjects with normal creatinine clearance, rivaroxaban exposure increased by approximately 44 to 64% in adult subjects with renal impairment. Increases in pharmacodynamic effects were also observed [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease not on Dialysis

In the ROCKET AF trial, patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min were administered XARELTO 15 mg once daily resulting in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban and clinical outcomes similar to those in patients with better renal function administered XARELTO 20 mg once daily. Patients with CrCl <30 mL/min were not studied, but administration of XARELTO 15 mg once daily is expected to result in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban similar to those in patients with moderate renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis

Clinical efficacy and safety studies with XARELTO did not enroll patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis. In patients with ESRD maintained on intermittent hemodialysis, administration of XARELTO 15 mg once daily will result in concentrations of rivaroxaban and pharmacodynamic activity similar to those observed in the ROCKET AF study [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2, 12.3)] . It is not known whether these concentrations will lead to similar stroke reduction and bleeding risk in patients with ESRD on dialysis as was seen in ROCKET AF.

Treatment of DVT and/or PE and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and/or PE

In the EINSTEIN trials, patients with CrCl values <30 mL/min at screening were excluded from the studies, but administration of XARELTO is expected to result in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban similar to those in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30 to <50 mL/min) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in patients with CrCl 15 to <30 mL/min. Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <15 mL/min.

Prophylaxis of DVT Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery

The combined analysis of the RECORD 1–3 clinical efficacy studies did not show an increase in bleeding risk for patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min and reported a possible increase in total venous thromboemboli in this population. In the RECORD 1–3 trials, patients with CrCl values <30 mL/min at screening were excluded from the studies, but administration of XARELTO 10 mg once daily is expected to result in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban similar to those in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30 to <50 mL/min) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in patients with CrCl 15 to <30 mL/min. Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <15 mL/min.

Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism in Acutely Ill Medical Patients at Risk for Thromboembolic Complications Not at High Risk of Bleeding

Patients with CrCl values <30 mL/min at screening were excluded from the MAGELLAN study. In patients with CrCl <30 mL/min a dose of XARELTO 10 mg once daily is expected to result in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban similar to those in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30 to <50 mL/min) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in patients with CrCl 15 to <30 mL/min. Avoid use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <15 mL/min.

Reduction of Risk of Major Cardiovascular Events in Patients with CAD and Reduction of Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Patients with PAD, Including Patients After Recent Lower Extremity Revascularization due to Symptomatic PAD

Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease not on Dialysis

Patients with a CrCl <15 mL/min at screening were excluded from COMPASS and VOYAGER, and limited data are available for patients with a CrCl of 15 to 30 mL/min. In patients with CrCl <30 mL/min, a dose of 2.5 mg XARELTO twice daily is expected to give an exposure similar to that in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30 to <50 mL/min) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , whose efficacy and safety outcomes were similar to those with preserved renal function.

Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis

No clinical outcome data is available for the use of XARELTO with aspirin in patients with ESRD on dialysis since these patients were not enrolled in COMPASS or VOYAGER. In patients with ESRD maintained on intermittent hemodialysis, administration of XARELTO 2.5 mg twice daily will result in concentrations of rivaroxaban and pharmacodynamic activity similar to those observed in moderate renal impaired patients in the COMPASS study [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2, 12.3)] . It is not known whether these concentrations will lead to similar CV risk reduction and bleeding risk in patients with ESRD on dialysis as was seen in COMPASS.

Pediatric Use

No dosage adjustment is required in patients 1 year of age or older with mild renal impairment (eGFR 50 to ≤ 80 mL/min/1.73 m 2). There are limited clinical data in pediatric patients 1 year or older with moderate or severe renal impairment (eGFR <50 mL/min/1.73 m 2); therefore, avoid the use of XARELTO in these patients.

There are no clinical data in pediatric patients younger than 1 year with serum creatinine results above 97.5 th percentile; therefore, avoid the use of XARELTO in these patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)] .

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

In a pharmacokinetic study, compared to healthy adult subjects with normal liver function, AUC increases of 127% were observed in adult subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B).

The safety or PK of XARELTO in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) has not been evaluated [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) and severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment or with any hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy.

No clinical data are available in pediatric patients with hepatic impairment.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Overdose of XARELTO may lead to hemorrhage. Discontinue XARELTO and initiate appropriate therapy if bleeding complications associated with overdosage occur. Rivaroxaban systemic exposure is not further increased at single doses >50 mg due to limited absorption. The use of activated charcoal to reduce absorption in case of XARELTO overdose may be considered. Due to the high plasma protein binding, rivaroxaban is not dialyzable [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Partial reversal of laboratory anticoagulation parameters may be achieved with use of plasma products. An agent to reverse the anti-factor Xa activity of rivaroxaban is available.

11 DESCRIPTION

Rivaroxaban, a factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor, is the active ingredient in XARELTO ® Tablets and XARELTO ® for oral suspension with the chemical name 5-Chloro-N-({(5S)-2-oxo-3-[4-(3-oxo-4-morpholinyl)phenyl]-1,3-oxazolidin-5-yl}methyl)-2-thiophenecarboxamide. The molecular formula of rivaroxaban is C 19H 18ClN 3O 5S and the molecular weight is 435.89. The structural formula is:

Chemical Structure

Rivaroxaban is a pure ( S)-enantiomer. It is an odorless, non-hygroscopic, white to yellowish powder. Rivaroxaban is only slightly soluble in organic solvents (e.g., acetone, polyethylene glycol 400) and is practically insoluble in water and aqueous media.

Each XARELTO tablet contains 2.5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, or 20 mg of rivaroxaban. The inactive ingredients of XARELTO are: croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium lauryl sulfate. Additionally, the proprietary film coating mixture used for XARELTO 2.5 mg is Opadry ® Light Yellow, containing ferric oxide yellow, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol 3350, and titanium dioxide, and for XARELTO 10 mg tablets is Opadry ® Pink and for XARELTO 15 mg tablets is Opadry ® Red, both containing ferric oxide red, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol 3350, and titanium dioxide, and for XARELTO 20 mg tablets is Opadry ® II Dark Red, containing ferric oxide red, polyethylene glycol 3350, polyvinyl alcohol (partially hydrolyzed), talc, and titanium dioxide.

XARELTO for oral suspension is supplied as granules in bottles containing 155 mg of rivaroxaban (1 mg of rivaroxaban per mL after reconstitution). The inactive ingredients are: anhydrous citric acid, hypromellose, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium, sodium benzoate, sucralose, sweet and creamy flavor and xanthan gum.

Chemical Structure

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

XARELTO is a selective inhibitor of FXa. It does not require a cofactor (such as Anti-thrombin III) for activity. Rivaroxaban inhibits free FXa and prothrombinase activity. Rivaroxaban has no direct effect on platelet aggregation, but indirectly inhibits platelet aggregation induced by thrombin. By inhibiting FXa, rivaroxaban decreases thrombin generation.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Rivaroxaban produces dose-dependent inhibition of FXa activity. Clotting tests, such as prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and HepTest ®, are also prolonged dose-dependently. In children treated with rivaroxaban, the correlation between anti-factor Xa to plasma concentrations is linear with a slope close to 1.

Monitoring for anticoagulation effect of rivaroxaban using anti-FXa activity or a clotting test is not recommended.

Specific Populations

Renal Impairment

The relationship between systemic exposure and pharmacodynamic activity of rivaroxaban was altered in adult subjects with renal impairment relative to healthy control subjects [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)] .

Table 18: Percentage Increase in Rivaroxaban PK and PD Measures in Adult Subjects with Renal Impairment Relative to Healthy Subjects from Clinical Pharmacology Studies
Measure Parameter Creatinine Clearance (mL/min)
50–79 30–49 15–29 ESRD (on dialysis) Separate stand-alone study. ESRD (post-dialysis)
PT = Prothrombin time; FXa = Coagulation factor Xa; AUC = Area under the plasma concentration-time curve; AUEC = Area under the effect-time curve
Exposure AUC 44 52 64 47 56
FXa Inhibition AUEC 50 86 100 49 33
PT Prolongation AUEC 33 116 144 112 158

Hepatic Impairment

Anti-Factor Xa activity was similar in adult subjects with normal hepatic function and in mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A class). There is no clear understanding of the impact of hepatic impairment beyond this degree on the coagulation cascade and its relationship to efficacy and safety.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of rivaroxaban is dose-dependent. For the 2.5 mg and 10 mg dose, it is estimated to be 80% to 100% and is not affected by food. XARELTO 2.5 mg and 10 mg tablets can be taken with or without food. XARELTO 20 mg administered in the fasted state has an absolute bioavailability of approximately 66%. Coadministration of XARELTO with food increases the bioavailability of the 20 mg dose (mean AUC and C max increasing by 39% and 76% respectively with food). XARELTO 15 mg and 20 mg tablets should be taken with food [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)] .

The maximum concentrations (C max) of rivaroxaban appear 2 to 4 hours after tablet intake. The pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban were not affected by drugs altering gastric pH. Coadministration of XARELTO (30 mg single dose) with the H 2-receptor antagonist ranitidine (150 mg twice daily), the antacid aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide (10 mL) or XARELTO (20 mg single dose) with the PPI omeprazole (40 mg once daily) did not show an effect on the bioavailability and exposure of rivaroxaban (see Figure 3).

Absorption of rivaroxaban is dependent on the site of drug release in the GI tract. A 29% and 56% decrease in AUC and C max compared to tablet was reported when rivaroxaban granulate is released in the proximal small intestine. Exposure is further reduced when drug is released in the distal small intestine, or ascending colon. Avoid administration of rivaroxaban distal to the stomach which can result in reduced absorption and related drug exposure.

In a study with 44 healthy subjects, both mean AUC and C max values for 20 mg rivaroxaban administered orally as a crushed tablet mixed in applesauce were comparable to that after the whole tablet. However, for the crushed tablet suspended in water and administered via an NG tube followed by a liquid meal, only mean AUC was comparable to that after the whole tablet, and C max was 18% lower.

Distribution

Protein binding of rivaroxaban in human plasma is approximately 92% to 95%, with albumin being the main binding component. The steady-state volume of distribution in healthy subjects is approximately 50 L.

Metabolism

Approximately 51% of an orally administered [ 14C]-rivaroxaban dose was recovered as inactive metabolites in urine (30%) and feces (21%). Oxidative degradation catalyzed by CYP3A4/5 and CYP2J2 and hydrolysis are the major sites of biotransformation. Unchanged rivaroxaban was the predominant moiety in plasma with no major or active circulating metabolites.

Excretion

In a Phase 1 study, following the administration of [ 14C]-rivaroxaban, approximately one-third (36%) was recovered as unchanged drug in the urine and 7% was recovered as unchanged drug in feces. Unchanged drug is excreted into urine, mainly via active tubular secretion and to a lesser extent via glomerular filtration (approximate 5:1 ratio). Rivaroxaban is a substrate of the efflux transporter proteins P-gp and ABCG2 (also abbreviated BCRP). Rivaroxaban's affinity for influx transporter proteins is unknown.

Rivaroxaban is a low-clearance drug, with a systemic clearance of approximately 10 L/hr in healthy volunteers following intravenous administration. The terminal elimination half-life of rivaroxaban is 5 to 9 hours in healthy subjects aged 20 to 45 years.

Specific Populations

The effects of level of renal impairment, age, body weight, and level of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban are summarized in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Effect of Specific Adult Populations on the Pharmacokinetics of Rivaroxaban

Figure 2

[See Dosage and Administration (2.1)]

Figure 2

Gender

Gender did not influence the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of XARELTO.

Race

Healthy Japanese subjects were found to have 20 to 40% on average higher exposures compared to other ethnicities including Chinese. However, these differences in exposure are reduced when values are corrected for body weight.

Elderly

The terminal elimination half-life is 11 to 13 hours in the elderly subjects aged 60 to 76 years [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)] .

Pediatric Patients

The rate and extent of absorption were similar between the tablet and suspension. After repeated administration of rivaroxaban for the treatment of VTE, the C max of rivaroxaban in plasma was observed at median times of 1.5 to 2.2 hours in subjects who ranged from birth to less than 18 years of age.

In children who were 6 months to 9 years of age, in vitro plasma protein binding of rivaroxaban is approximately 90%.

The half-life of rivaroxaban in plasma of pediatric patients treated for VTE decreased with decreasing age. Mean half-life values were 4.2 hours in adolescents, 3 hours in children 2 to 12 years of age, 1.9 hours in children 0.5 to <2 years of age, and 1.6 hours in children <0.5 years of age.

An exploratory analysis in pediatric patients treated for VTE did not reveal relevant differences in rivaroxaban exposure based on gender or race.

Hemodialysis in ESRD subjects: Systemic exposure to rivaroxaban administered as a single 15 mg dose in ESRD subjects dosed 3 hours after the completion of a 4-hour hemodialysis session (post-dialysis) is 56% higher when compared to subjects with normal renal function (see Table 18). The systemic exposure to rivaroxaban administered 2 hours prior to a 4-hour hemodialysis session with a dialysate flow rate of 600 mL/min and a blood flow rate in the range of 320 to 400 mL/min is 47% higher compared to those with normal renal function. The extent of the increase is similar to the increase in patients with CrCl 15 to 50 mL/min taking XARELTO 15 mg. Hemodialysis had no significant impact on rivaroxaban exposure. Protein binding was similar (86% to 89%) in healthy controls and ESRD subjects in this study.

Pediatric Patients: Limited clinical data are available in children 1 year or older with moderate or severe renal impairment (eGFR <50 mL/min/1.73 m 2) or in children younger than 1 year with serum creatinine results above 97.5th percentile [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)] .

Renal Impairment

The safety and pharmacokinetics of single-dose XARELTO (10 mg) were evaluated in a study in healthy subjects [CrCl ≥80 mL/min (n=8)] and in subjects with varying degrees of renal impairment (see Figure 2). Compared to healthy subjects with normal creatinine clearance, rivaroxaban exposure increased in subjects with renal impairment. Increases in pharmacodynamic effects were also observed [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)] .

Hepatic Impairment

The safety and pharmacokinetics of single-dose XARELTO (10 mg) were evaluated in a study in healthy adult subjects (n=16) and adult subjects with varying degrees of hepatic impairment (see Figure 2). No patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) were studied. Compared to healthy subjects with normal liver function, significant increases in rivaroxaban exposure were observed in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B) (see Figure 2). Increases in pharmacodynamic effects were also observed [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)] .

No clinical data are available in pediatric patients with hepatic impairment.

Drug Interactions

In vitro studies indicate that rivaroxaban neither inhibits the major cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2J2, and 3A nor induces CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C19, or 3A. In vitro data also indicates a low rivaroxaban inhibitory potential for P-gp and ABCG2 transporters.

The effects of coadministered drugs on the pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban exposure are summarized in Figure 3 [see Drug Interactions (7)] .

Figure 3: Effect of Coadministered Drugs on the Pharmacokinetics of Rivaroxaban in Adults

Figure 3

Figure 3

Anticoagulants

In a drug interaction study, single doses of enoxaparin (40 mg subcutaneous) and XARELTO (10 mg) given concomitantly resulted in an additive effect on anti-factor Xa activity. In another study, single doses of warfarin (15 mg) and XARELTO (5 mg) resulted in an additive effect on factor Xa inhibition and PT. Neither enoxaparin nor warfarin affected the pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban (see Figure 3).

NSAIDs/Aspirin

In ROCKET AF, concomitant aspirin use (almost exclusively at a dose of 100 mg or less) during the double-blind phase was identified as an independent risk factor for major bleeding. NSAIDs are known to increase bleeding, and bleeding risk may be increased when NSAIDs are used concomitantly with XARELTO. Neither naproxen nor aspirin affected the pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban (see Figure 3).

Clopidogrel

In two drug interaction studies where clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose followed by 75 mg daily maintenance dose) and XARELTO (15 mg single dose) were coadministered in healthy subjects, an increase in bleeding time to 45 minutes was observed in approximately 45% and 30% of subjects in these studies, respectively. The change in bleeding time was approximately twice the maximum increase seen with either drug alone. There was no change in the pharmacokinetics of either drug.

Drug-Disease Interactions with Drugs that Inhibit Cytochrome P450 3A Enzymes and Drug Transport Systems

In a pharmacokinetic trial, XARELTO was administered as a single dose in subjects with mild (CrCl = 50 to 79 mL/min) or moderate renal impairment (CrCl = 30 to 49 mL/min) receiving multiple doses of erythromycin (a combined P-gp and moderate CYP3A inhibitor). Compared to XARELTO administered alone in subjects with normal renal function (CrCl >80 mL/min), subjects with mild and moderate renal impairment concomitantly receiving erythromycin reported a 76% and 99% increase in AUC inf and a 56% and 64% increase in C max, respectively. Similar trends in pharmacodynamic effects were also observed.

12.6 QT/QTc Prolongation

In a thorough QT study in healthy men and women aged 50 years and older, no QTc prolonging effects were observed for XARELTO (15 mg and 45 mg, single-dose).

13 NON-CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Rivaroxaban was not carcinogenic when administered by oral gavage to mice or rats for up to 2 years. The systemic exposures (AUCs) of unbound rivaroxaban in male and female mice at the highest dose tested (60 mg/kg/day) were 1- and 2-times, respectively, the human exposure of unbound drug at the human dose of 20 mg/day. Systemic exposures of unbound drug in male and female rats at the highest dose tested (60 mg/kg/day) were 2- and 4-times, respectively, the human exposure.

Rivaroxaban was not mutagenic in bacteria (Ames-Test) or clastogenic in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells in vitro or in the mouse micronucleus test in vivo.

No impairment of fertility was observed in male or female rats when given up to 200 mg/kg/day of rivaroxaban orally. This dose resulted in exposure levels, based on the unbound AUC, at least 13 times the exposure in humans given 20 mg rivaroxaban daily.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Stroke Prevention in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

The evidence for the efficacy and safety of XARELTO was derived from Rivaroxaban Once-daily oral direct factor Xa inhibition Compared with vitamin K antagonist for the prevention of stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) [NCT00403767], a multi-national, double-blind study comparing XARELTO (at a dose of 20 mg once daily with the evening meal in patients with CrCl >50 mL/min and 15 mg once daily with the evening meal in patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min) to warfarin (titrated to INR 2.0 to 3.0) to reduce the risk of stroke and non-central nervous system (CNS) systemic embolism in pa