LAMICTAL (lamotrigine) tablet
GlaxoSmithKline LLC

GlaxoSmithKline LLC
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
LACTOSE, UNSPECIFIED FORM
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO
LAMICTAL;25
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
FD&C YELLOW NO. 6
LACTOSE, UNSPECIFIED FORM
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO
peach
LAMICTAL;100
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
FERRIC OXIDE YELLOW
LACTOSE, UNSPECIFIED FORM
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO
cream
LAMICTAL;150
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
FD&C BLUE NO. 2
LACTOSE, UNSPECIFIED FORM
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO
LAMICTAL;200
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CALCIUM CARBONATE
LOW-SUBSTITUTED HYDROXYPROPYL CELLULOSE, UNSPECIFIED
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED
SACCHARIN SODIUM
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO
MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM SILICATE
white to off-white
LTG;2
blackcurrant
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CALCIUM CARBONATE
LOW-SUBSTITUTED HYDROXYPROPYL CELLULOSE, UNSPECIFIED
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED
SACCHARIN SODIUM
MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM SILICATE
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO
white to off-white
caplet-shaped
GX;CL2
blackcurrant
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CALCIUM CARBONATE
LOW-SUBSTITUTED HYDROXYPROPYL CELLULOSE, UNSPECIFIED
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED
SACCHARIN SODIUM
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO
MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM SILICATE
super elliptical-shaped
GX;CL5
blackcurrant
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CROSPOVIDONE (15 MPA.S AT 5%)
MANNITOL
SUCRALOSE
ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S)
white to off-white
flat-faced, radius edge
LMT;25
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CROSPOVIDONE (15 MPA.S AT 5%)
MANNITOL
SUCRALOSE
ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S)
white to off-white
flat-faced, radius edge
LMT;50
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CROSPOVIDONE (15 MPA.S AT 5%)
MANNITOL
SUCRALOSE
ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S)
white to off-white
flat-faced, radius edge
LAMICTAL;100
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CROSPOVIDONE (15 MPA.S AT 5%)
MANNITOL
SUCRALOSE
ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S)
white to off-white
flat-faced, radius edge
LAMICTAL;200
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
LACTOSE, UNSPECIFIED FORM
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED
FD&C YELLOW NO. 6
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO
peach
LAMICTAL;100
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
LACTOSE, UNSPECIFIED FORM
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO
LAMICTAL;25
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CROSPOVIDONE (15 MPA.S AT 5%)
MANNITOL
SUCRALOSE
ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S)
white to off-white
flat-faced, radius edge
LMT;50
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CROSPOVIDONE (15 MPA.S AT 5%)
MANNITOL
SUCRALOSE
ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S)
white to off-white
flat-faced, radius edge
LMT;25
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CROSPOVIDONE (15 MPA.S AT 5%)
MANNITOL
SUCRALOSE
ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S)
white to off-white
flat-faced, radius edge
LMT;50
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CROSPOVIDONE (15 MPA.S AT 5%)
MANNITOL
SUCRALOSE
ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S)
white to off-white
flat-faced, radius edge
LAMICTAL;100
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CROSPOVIDONE (15 MPA.S AT 5%)
MANNITOL
SUCRALOSE
ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S)
white to off-white
flat-faced, radius edge
LMT;25
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CROSPOVIDONE (15 MPA.S AT 5%)
MANNITOL
SUCRALOSE
ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S)
white to off-white
flat-faced, radius edge
LMT;50
LAMICTAL
ODT
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
CROSPOVIDONE (15 MPA.S AT 5%)
MANNITOL
SUCRALOSE
ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S)
white to off-white
flat-faced, radius edge
LAMICTAL;100
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
LACTOSE, UNSPECIFIED FORM
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED
FD&C YELLOW NO. 6
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO
peach
LAMICTAL;100
LAMICTAL
lamotrigine
LAMOTRIGINE
LAMOTRIGINE
LACTOSE, UNSPECIFIED FORM
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE
POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO
LAMICTAL;25

WARNING: SERIOUS SKIN RASHES

LAMICTAL can cause serious rashes requiring hospitalization and discontinuation of treatment. The incidence of these rashes, which have included Stevens-Johnson syndrome, is approximately 0.3% to 0.8% in pediatric patients (aged 2 to 17 years) and 0.08% to 0.3% in adults receiving LAMICTAL. One rash-related death was reported in a prospectively followed cohort of 1,983 pediatric patients (aged 2 to 16 years) with epilepsy taking LAMICTAL as adjunctive therapy. In worldwide postmarketing experience, rare cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis and/or rash-related death have been reported in adult and pediatric patients, but their numbers are too few to permit a precise estimate of the rate.

Other than age, there are as yet no factors identified that are known to predict the risk of occurrence or the severity of rash caused by LAMICTAL. There are suggestions, yet to be proven, that the risk of rash may also be increased by (1) coadministration of LAMICTAL with valproate (includes valproic acid and divalproex sodium), (2) exceeding the recommended initial dose of LAMICTAL, or (3) exceeding the recommended dose escalation for LAMICTAL. However, cases have occurred in the absence of these factors.

Nearly all cases of life-threatening rashes caused by LAMICTAL have occurred within 2 to 8 weeks of treatment initiation. However, isolated cases have occurred after prolonged treatment (e.g., 6 months). Accordingly, duration of therapy cannot be relied upon as means to predict the potential risk heralded by the first appearance of a rash.

Although benign rashes are also caused by LAMICTAL, it is not possible to predict reliably which rashes will prove to be serious or life threatening. Accordingly, LAMICTAL should ordinarily be discontinued at the first sign of rash, unless the rash is clearly not drug related. Discontinuation of treatment may not prevent a rash from becoming life threatening or permanently disabling or disfiguring [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

WARNING: SERIOUS SKIN RASHES

See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.

  • Cases of life-threatening serious rashes, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, and/or rash-related death have been caused by lamotrigine. The rate of serious rash is greater in pediatric patients than in adults. Additional factors that may increase the risk of rash include:
    • coadministration with valproate.
    • exceeding recommended initial dose of LAMICTAL.
    • exceeding recommended dose escalation for LAMICTAL. (5.1)
  • Benign rashes are also caused by lamotrigine; however, it is not possible to predict which rashes will prove to be serious or life threatening. LAMICTAL should be discontinued at the first sign of rash, unless the rash is clearly not drug related. (5.1)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

LAMICTAL is indicated for:

Epilepsy—adjunctive therapy in patients aged 2 years and older:

  • partial-onset seizures.
  • primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
  • generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. (1.1)

Epilepsy—monotherapy in patients aged 16 years and older: Conversion to monotherapy in patients with partial-onset seizures who are receiving treatment with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate as the single antiepileptic drug. (1.1)

Bipolar disorder: Maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder to delay the time to occurrence of mood episodes in patients treated for acute mood episodes with standard therapy. (1.2)

Limitations of Use: Treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes is not recommended. Effectiveness of LAMICTAL in the acute treatment of mood episodes has not been established.

1.1 Epilepsy

Adjunctive Therapy

LAMICTAL is indicated as adjunctive therapy for the following seizure types in patients aged 2 years and older:

  • partial-onset seizures.
  • primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures.
  • generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Monotherapy

LAMICTAL is indicated for conversion to monotherapy in adults (aged 16 years and older) with partial-onset seizures who are receiving treatment with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate as the single antiepileptic drug (AED).

Safety and effectiveness of LAMICTAL have not been established (1) as initial monotherapy; (2) for conversion to monotherapy from AEDs other than carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate; or (3) for simultaneous conversion to monotherapy from 2 or more concomitant AEDs.

1.2 Bipolar Disorder

LAMICTAL is indicated for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder to delay the time to occurrence of mood episodes (depression, mania, hypomania, mixed episodes) in patients treated for acute mood episodes with standard therapy [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

Limitations of Use

Treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes is not recommended. Effectiveness of LAMICTAL in the acute treatment of mood episodes has not been established.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

  • Dosing is based on concomitant medications, indication, and patient age. (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4)
  • To avoid an increased risk of rash, the recommended initial dose and subsequent dose escalations should not be exceeded. LAMICTAL Starter Kits and LAMICTAL ODT Patient Titration Kits are available for the first 5 weeks of treatment. (2.1, 16)
  • Do not restart LAMICTAL in patients who discontinued due to rash unless the potential benefits clearly outweigh the risks. (2.1, 5.1)
  • Adjustments to maintenance doses will be necessary in most patients starting or stopping estrogen-containing oral contraceptives. (2.1, 5.9)
  • Discontinuation: Taper over a period of at least 2 weeks (approximately 50% dose reduction per week). (2.1, 5.10)

Epilepsy:

  • Adjunctive therapy—See Table 1 for patients older than 12 years and Tables 2 and 3 for patients aged 2 to 12 years. (2.2)
  • Conversion to monotherapy—See Table 4. (2.3)

Bipolar disorder: See Tables 5 and 6. (2.4)

2.1 General Dosing Considerations

Rash

There are suggestions, yet to be proven, that the risk of severe, potentially life-threatening rash may be increased by (1) coadministration of LAMICTAL with valproate, (2) exceeding the recommended initial dose of LAMICTAL, or (3) exceeding the recommended dose escalation for LAMICTAL. However, cases have occurred in the absence of these factors [see Boxed Warning]. Therefore, it is important that the dosing recommendations be followed closely.

The risk of nonserious rash may be increased when the recommended initial dose and/or the rate of dose escalation for LAMICTAL is exceeded and in patients with a history of allergy or rash to other AEDs.

LAMICTAL Starter Kits and LAMICTAL ODT Patient Titration Kits provide LAMICTAL at doses consistent with the recommended titration schedule for the first 5 weeks of treatment, based upon concomitant medications, for patients with epilepsy (older than 12 years) and bipolar I disorder (adults) and are intended to help reduce the potential for rash. The use of LAMICTAL Starter Kits and LAMICTAL ODT Patient Titration Kits is recommended for appropriate patients who are starting or restarting LAMICTAL [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)].

It is recommended that LAMICTAL not be restarted in patients who discontinued due to rash associated with prior treatment with lamotrigine unless the potential benefits clearly outweigh the risks. If the decision is made to restart a patient who has discontinued LAMICTAL, the need to restart with the initial dosing recommendations should be assessed. The greater the interval of time since the previous dose, the greater consideration should be given to restarting with the initial dosing recommendations. If a patient has discontinued lamotrigine for a period of more than 5 half-lives, it is recommended that initial dosing recommendations and guidelines be followed. The half-life of lamotrigine is affected by other concomitant medications [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

LAMICTAL Added to Drugs Known to Induce or Inhibit Glucuronidation

Because lamotrigine is metabolized predominantly by glucuronic acid conjugation, drugs that are known to induce or inhibit glucuronidation may affect the apparent clearance of lamotrigine. Drugs that induce glucuronidation include carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, rifampin, estrogen-containing oral contraceptives, and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir. Valproate inhibits glucuronidation. For dosing considerations for LAMICTAL in patients on estrogen-containing contraceptives and atazanavir/ritonavir, see below and Table 13. For dosing considerations for LAMICTAL in patients on other drugs known to induce or inhibit glucuronidation, see Tables 1, 2, 5-6, and 13.

Target Plasma Levels for Patients with Epilepsy or Bipolar Disorder

A therapeutic plasma concentration range has not been established for lamotrigine. Dosing of LAMICTAL should be based on therapeutic response [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Women Taking Estrogen-Containing Oral Contraceptives

Starting LAMICTAL in Women Taking Estrogen-Containing Oral Contraceptives: Although estrogen-containing oral contraceptives have been shown to increase the clearance of lamotrigine [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], no adjustments to the recommended dose-escalation guidelines for LAMICTAL should be necessary solely based on the use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives. Therefore, dose escalation should follow the recommended guidelines for initiating adjunctive therapy with LAMICTAL based on the concomitant AED or other concomitant medications (see Tables 1, 5, and 7). See below for adjustments to maintenance doses of LAMICTAL in women taking estrogen-containing oral contraceptives.

Adjustments to the Maintenance Dose of LAMICTAL in Women Taking Estrogen-Containing Oral Contraceptives:

(1) Taking Estrogen-Containing Oral Contraceptives: In women not taking carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or other drugs such as rifampin and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir that induce lamotrigine glucuronidation [see Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], the maintenance dose of LAMICTAL will in most cases need to be increased by as much as 2-fold over the recommended target maintenance dose to maintain a consistent lamotrigine plasma level.

(2) Starting Estrogen-Containing Oral Contraceptives: In women taking a stable dose of LAMICTAL and not taking carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or other drugs such as rifampin and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir that induce lamotrigine glucuronidation [see Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], the maintenance dose will in most cases need to be increased by as much as 2-fold to maintain a consistent lamotrigine plasma level. The dose increases should begin at the same time that the oral contraceptive is introduced and continue, based on clinical response, no more rapidly than 50 to 100 mg/day every week. Dose increases should not exceed the recommended rate (see Tables 1 and 5) unless lamotrigine plasma levels or clinical response support larger increases. Gradual transient increases in lamotrigine plasma levels may occur during the week of inactive hormonal preparation (pill-free week), and these increases will be greater if dose increases are made in the days before or during the week of inactive hormonal preparation. Increased lamotrigine plasma levels could result in additional adverse reactions, such as dizziness, ataxia, and diplopia. If adverse reactions attributable to LAMICTAL consistently occur during the pill-free week, dose adjustments to the overall maintenance dose may be necessary. Dose adjustments limited to the pill-free week are not recommended. For women taking LAMICTAL in addition to carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or other drugs such as rifampin and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir that induce lamotrigine glucuronidation [see Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], no adjustment to the dose of LAMICTAL should be necessary.

(3) Stopping Estrogen-Containing Oral Contraceptives: In women not taking carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or other drugs such as rifampin and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir that induce lamotrigine glucuronidation [see Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], the maintenance dose of LAMICTAL will in most cases need to be decreased by as much as 50% in order to maintain a consistent lamotrigine plasma level. The decrease in dose of LAMICTAL should not exceed 25% of the total daily dose per week over a 2-week period, unless clinical response or lamotrigine plasma levels indicate otherwise [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In women taking LAMICTAL in addition to carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or other drugs such as rifampin and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir that induce lamotrigine glucuronidation [see Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], no adjustment to the dose of LAMICTAL should be necessary.

Women and Other Hormonal Contraceptive Preparations or Hormone Replacement Therapy

The effect of other hormonal contraceptive preparations or hormone replacement therapy on the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine has not been systematically evaluated. It has been reported that ethinylestradiol, not progestogens, increased the clearance of lamotrigine up to 2-fold, and the progestin-only pills had no effect on lamotrigine plasma levels. Therefore, adjustments to the dosage of LAMICTAL in the presence of progestogens alone will likely not be needed.

Patients Taking Atazanavir/Ritonavir

While atazanavir/ritonavir does reduce the lamotrigine plasma concentration, no adjustments to the recommended dose-escalation guidelines for LAMICTAL should be necessary solely based on the use of atazanavir/ritonavir. Dose escalation should follow the recommended guidelines for initiating adjunctive therapy with LAMICTAL based on concomitant AED or other concomitant medications (see Tables 1, 2, and 5). In patients already taking maintenance doses of LAMICTAL and not taking glucuronidation inducers, the dose of LAMICTAL may need to be increased if atazanavir/ritonavir is added or decreased if atazanavir/ritonavir is discontinued [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Patients with Hepatic Impairment

Experience in patients with hepatic impairment is limited. Based on a clinical pharmacology study in 24 subjects with mild, moderate, and severe liver impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], the following general recommendations can be made. No dosage adjustment is needed in patients with mild liver impairment. Initial, escalation, and maintenance doses should generally be reduced by approximately 25% in patients with moderate and severe liver impairment without ascites and 50% in patients with severe liver impairment with ascites. Escalation and maintenance doses may be adjusted according to clinical response.

Patients with Renal Impairment

Initial doses of LAMICTAL should be based on patients’ concomitant medications (see Tables 1-3 and 5); reduced maintenance doses may be effective for patients with significant renal impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Few patients with severe renal impairment have been evaluated during chronic treatment with LAMICTAL. Because there is inadequate experience in this population, LAMICTAL should be used with caution in these patients.

Discontinuation Strategy

Epilepsy: For patients receiving LAMICTAL in combination with other AEDs, a re-evaluation of all AEDs in the regimen should be considered if a change in seizure control or an appearance or worsening of adverse reactions is observed.

If a decision is made to discontinue therapy with LAMICTAL, a step-wise reduction of dose over at least 2 weeks (approximately 50% per week) is recommended unless safety concerns require a more rapid withdrawal [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].

Discontinuing carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or other drugs such as rifampin and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir that induce lamotrigine glucuronidation should prolong the half-life of lamotrigine; discontinuing valproate should shorten the half-life of lamotrigine.

Bipolar Disorder: In the controlled clinical trials, there was no increase in the incidence, type, or severity of adverse reactions following abrupt termination of LAMICTAL. In the clinical development program in adults with bipolar disorder, 2 patients experienced seizures shortly after abrupt withdrawal of LAMICTAL. Discontinuation of LAMICTAL should involve a step-wise reduction of dose over at least 2 weeks (approximately 50% per week) unless safety concerns require a more rapid withdrawal [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].

2.2 Epilepsy—Adjunctive Therapy

This section provides specific dosing recommendations for patients older than 12 years and patients aged 2 to 12 years. Within each of these age-groups, specific dosing recommendations are provided depending upon concomitant AEDs or other concomitant medications (see Table 1 for patients older than 12 years and Table 2 for patients aged 2 to 12 years). A weight-based dosing guide for patients aged 2 to 12 years on concomitant valproate is provided in Table 3.

Patients Older than 12 Years

Recommended dosing guidelines are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1. Escalation Regimen for LAMICTAL in Patients Older than 12 Years with Epilepsy
a Valproate has been shown to inhibit glucuronidation and decrease the apparent clearance of lamotrigine [see Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
b Drugs that induce lamotrigine glucuronidation and increase clearance, other than the specified antiepileptic drugs, include estrogen-containing oral contraceptives, rifampin, and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir. Dosing recommendations for oral contraceptives and the protease inhibitor atazanavir/ritonavir can be found in General Dosing Considerations [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Patients on rifampin and the protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir should follow the same dosing titration/maintenance regimen used with antiepileptic drugs that induce glucuronidation and increase clearance [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

In Patients TAKING Valproatea

In Patients NOT TAKING Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, Primidone,b or Valproatea

In Patients TAKING Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, or Primidoneb and NOT TAKING Valproatea

Weeks 1 and 2

25 mg every other day

25 mg every day

50 mg/day

Weeks 3 and 4

25 mg every day

50 mg/day

100 mg/day

(in 2 divided doses)

Week 5 onward to maintenance

Increase by 25 to 50 mg/day every 1 to 2 weeks.

Increase by 50 mg/day every 1 to 2 weeks.

Increase by 100 mg/day every 1 to 2 weeks.

Usual maintenance dose

100 to 200 mg/day with valproate alone

100 to 400 mg/day with valproate and other drugs that induce glucuronidation

(in 1 or 2 divided doses)

225 to 375 mg/day

(in 2 divided doses)

300 to 500 mg/day

(in 2 divided doses)

Patients Aged 2 to 12 Years

Recommended dosing guidelines are summarized in Table 2.

Lower starting doses and slower dose escalations than those used in clinical trials are recommended because of the suggestion that the risk of rash may be decreased by lower starting doses and slower dose escalations. Therefore, maintenance doses will take longer to reach in clinical practice than in clinical trials. It may take several weeks to months to achieve an individualized maintenance dose. Maintenance doses in patients weighing <30 kg, regardless of age or concomitant AED, may need to be increased as much as 50%, based on clinical response.

The smallest available strength of LAMICTAL tablets for oral suspension is 2 mg, and only whole tablets should be administered. If the calculated dose cannot be achieved using whole tablets, the dose should be rounded down to the nearest whole tablet [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16), Medication Guide].

Table 2. Escalation Regimen for LAMICTAL in Patients Aged 2 to 12 Years with Epilepsy
Note: Only whole tablets should be used for dosing.
a Valproate has been shown to inhibit glucuronidation and decrease the apparent clearance of lamotrigine [see Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
b Drugs that induce lamotrigine glucuronidation and increase clearance, other than the specified antiepileptic drugs, include estrogen-containing oral contraceptives, rifampin, and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir. Dosing recommendations for oral contraceptives and the protease inhibitor atazanavir/ritonavir can be found in General Dosing Considerations [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Patients on rifampin and the protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir should follow the same dosing titration/maintenance regimen used with antiepileptic drugs that induce glucuronidation and increase clearance [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

In Patients TAKING Valproatea

In Patients NOT TAKING Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, Primidone,b or Valproatea

In Patients TAKING Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, or Primidoneb and NOT TAKING Valproatea

Weeks 1 and 2

0.15 mg/kg/day

in 1 or 2 divided doses, rounded down to the nearest whole tablet (see Table 3 for weight-based dosing guide)

0.3 mg/kg/day

in 1 or 2 divided doses, rounded down to the nearest whole tablet

0.6 mg/kg/day

in 2 divided doses, rounded down to the nearest whole tablet

Weeks 3 and 4

0.3 mg/kg/day

in 1 or 2 divided doses, rounded down to the nearest whole tablet (see Table 3 for weight-based dosing guide)

0.6 mg/kg/day

in 2 divided doses, rounded down to the nearest whole tablet

1.2 mg/kg/day

in 2 divided doses, rounded down to the nearest whole tablet

Week 5 onward to maintenance

The dose should be increased every 1 to 2 weeks as follows: calculate 0.3 mg/kg/day, round this amount down to the nearest whole tablet, and add this amount to the previously administered daily dose.

The dose should be increased every 1 to 2 weeks as follows: calculate 0.6 mg/kg/day, round this amount down to the nearest whole tablet, and add this amount to the previously administered daily dose.

The dose should be increased every 1 to 2 weeks as follows: calculate 1.2 mg/kg/day, round this amount down to the nearest whole tablet, and add this amount to the previously administered daily dose.

Usual maintenance dose

1 to 5 mg/kg/day

(maximum 200 mg/day in 1 or 2 divided doses)

1 to 3 mg/kg/day

with valproate alone

4.5 to 7.5 mg/kg/day

(maximum 300 mg/day in 2 divided doses)

5 to 15 mg/kg/day

(maximum 400 mg/day in 2 divided doses)

Maintenance dose in patients <30 kg

May need to be increased by as much as 50%, based on clinical response.

May need to be increased by as much as 50%, based on clinical response.

May need to be increased by as much as 50%, based on clinical response.

Table 3. The Initial Weight-Based Dosing Guide for Patients Aged 2 to 12 Years Taking Valproate (Weeks 1 to 4) with Epilepsy

If the patient’s weight is

Give this daily dose, using the most appropriate combination of LAMICTAL 2- and 5-mg tablets

Greater than

And less than

Weeks 1 and 2

Weeks 3 and 4

6.7 kg

14 kg

2 mg every other day

2 mg every day

14.1 kg

27 kg

2 mg every day

4 mg every day

27.1 kg

34 kg

4 mg every day

8 mg every day

34.1 kg

40 kg

5 mg every day

10 mg every day

Usual Adjunctive Maintenance Dose for Epilepsy

The usual maintenance doses identified in Tables 1 and 2 are derived from dosing regimens employed in the placebo-controlled adjunctive trials in which the efficacy of LAMICTAL was established. In patients receiving multidrug regimens employing carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, or primidone without valproate, maintenance doses of adjunctive LAMICTAL as high as 700 mg/day have been used. In patients receiving valproate alone, maintenance doses of adjunctive LAMICTAL as high as 200 mg/day have been used. The advantage of using doses above those recommended in Tables 1-4 has not been established in controlled trials.

2.3 Epilepsy—Conversion from Adjunctive Therapy to Monotherapy

The goal of the transition regimen is to attempt to maintain seizure control while mitigating the risk of serious rash associated with the rapid titration of LAMICTAL.

The recommended maintenance dose of LAMICTAL as monotherapy is 500 mg/day given in 2 divided doses.

To avoid an increased risk of rash, the recommended initial dose and subsequent dose escalations for LAMICTAL should not be exceeded [see Boxed Warning].

Conversion from Adjunctive Therapy with Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, or Primidone to Monotherapy with LAMICTAL

After achieving a dose of 500 mg/day of LAMICTAL using the guidelines in Table 1, the concomitant enzyme-inducing AED should be withdrawn by 20% decrements each week over a 4-week period. The regimen for the withdrawal of the concomitant AED is based on experience gained in the controlled monotherapy clinical trial.

Conversion from Adjunctive Therapy with Valproate to Monotherapy with LAMICTAL

The conversion regimen involves the 4 steps outlined in Table 4.

Table 4. Conversion from Adjunctive Therapy with Valproate to Monotherapy with LAMICTAL in Patients Aged 16 Years and Older with Epilepsy

LAMICTAL

Valproate

Step 1

Achieve a dose of 200 mg/day according to guidelines in Table 1.

Maintain established stable dose.

Step 2

Maintain at 200 mg/day.

Decrease dose by decrements no greater than 500 mg/day/week to 500 mg/day and then maintain for 1 week.

Step 3

Increase to 300 mg/day and maintain for 1 week.

Simultaneously decrease to 250 mg/day and maintain for 1 week.

Step 4

Increase by 100 mg/day every week to achieve maintenance dose of 500 mg/day.

Discontinue.

Conversion from Adjunctive Therapy with Antiepileptic Drugs other than Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, Primidone, or Valproate to Monotherapy with LAMICTAL

No specific dosing guidelines can be provided for conversion to monotherapy with LAMICTAL with AEDs other than carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate.

2.4 Bipolar Disorder

The goal of maintenance treatment with LAMICTAL is to delay the time to occurrence of mood episodes (depression, mania, hypomania, mixed episodes) in patients treated for acute mood episodes with standard therapy [see Indications and Usage (1.2)].

Patients taking LAMICTAL for more than 16 weeks should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.

Adults

The target dose of LAMICTAL is 200 mg/day (100 mg/day in patients taking valproate, which decreases the apparent clearance of lamotrigine, and 400 mg/day in patients not taking valproate and taking either carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or other drugs such as rifampin and the protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir that increase the apparent clearance of lamotrigine). In the clinical trials, doses up to 400 mg/day as monotherapy were evaluated; however, no additional benefit was seen at 400 mg/day compared with 200 mg/day [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Accordingly, doses above 200 mg/day are not recommended.

Treatment with LAMICTAL is introduced, based on concurrent medications, according to the regimen outlined in Table 5. If other psychotropic medications are withdrawn following stabilization, the dose of LAMICTAL should be adjusted. In patients discontinuing valproate, the dose of LAMICTAL should be doubled over a 2-week period in equal weekly increments (see Table 6). In patients discontinuing carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or other drugs such as rifampin and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir that induce lamotrigine glucuronidation, the dose of LAMICTAL should remain constant for the first week and then should be decreased by half over a 2-week period in equal weekly decrements (see Table 6). The dose of LAMICTAL may then be further adjusted to the target dose (200 mg) as clinically indicated.

If other drugs are subsequently introduced, the dose of LAMICTAL may need to be adjusted. In particular, the introduction of valproate requires reduction in the dose of LAMICTAL [see Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

To avoid an increased risk of rash, the recommended initial dose and subsequent dose escalations of LAMICTAL should not be exceeded [see Boxed Warning].

Table 5. Escalation Regimen for LAMICTAL in Adults with Bipolar Disorder
a Valproate has been shown to inhibit glucuronidation and decrease the apparent clearance of lamotrigine [see Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
b Drugs that induce lamotrigine glucuronidation and increase clearance, other than the specified antiepileptic drugs, include estrogen-containing oral contraceptives, rifampin, and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir. Dosing recommendations for oral contraceptives and the protease inhibitor atazanavir/ritonavir can be found in General Dosing Considerations [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Patients on rifampin and the protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir should follow the same dosing titration/maintenance regimen used with antiepileptic drugs that induce glucuronidation and increase clearance [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

In Patients TAKING Valproatea

In Patients NOT TAKING Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, Primidone,b or Valproatea

In Patients TAKING Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, or Primidoneb and NOT TAKING Valproatea

Weeks 1 and 2

25 mg every other day

25 mg daily

50 mg daily

Weeks 3 and 4

25 mg daily

50 mg daily

100 mg daily, in divided doses

Week 5

50 mg daily

100 mg daily

200 mg daily, in divided doses

Week 6

100 mg daily

200 mg daily

300 mg daily, in divided doses

Week 7

100 mg daily

200 mg daily

up to 400 mg daily, in divided doses

Table 6. Dosage Adjustments to LAMICTAL in Adults with Bipolar Disorder following Discontinuation of Psychotropic Medications
a Valproate has been shown to inhibit glucuronidation and decrease the apparent clearance of lamotrigine [see Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
b Drugs that induce lamotrigine glucuronidation and increase clearance, other than the specified antiepileptic drugs, include estrogen-containing oral contraceptives, rifampin, and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir. Dosing recommendations for oral contraceptives and the protease inhibitor atazanavir/ritonavir can be found in General Dosing Considerations [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Patients on rifampin and the protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir should follow the same dosing titration/maintenance regimen used with antiepileptic drugs that induce glucuronidation and increase clearance [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Discontinuation of Psychotropic Drugs (excluding Valproate,a Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, or Primidoneb)

After Discontinuation of Valproatea

After Discontinuation of Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, or Primidoneb

Current Dose of LAMICTAL (mg/day)

100

Current Dose of LAMICTAL (mg/day)

400

Week 1

Maintain current dose of LAMICTAL

150

400

Week 2

Maintain current dose of LAMICTAL

200

300

Week 3 onward

Maintain current dose of LAMICTAL

200

200

2.5 Administration of LAMICTAL Tablets for Oral Suspension

LAMICTAL tablets for oral suspension may be swallowed whole, chewed, or dispersed in water or diluted fruit juice. If the tablets are chewed, consume a small amount of water or diluted fruit juice to aid in swallowing.

To disperse LAMICTAL tablets for oral suspension, add the tablets to a small amount of liquid (1 teaspoon, or enough to cover the medication). Approximately 1 minute later, when the tablets are completely dispersed, swirl the solution and consume the entire quantity immediately. No attempt should be made to administer partial quantities of the dispersed tablets.

2.6 Administration of LAMICTAL ODT Orally Disintegrating Tablets

LAMICTAL ODT orally disintegrating tablets should be placed onto the tongue and moved around in the mouth. The tablet will disintegrate rapidly, can be swallowed with or without water, and can be taken with or without food.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

  • Tablets: 25 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 200 mg; scored. (3.1, 16)
  • Tablets for oral suspension: 2 mg, 5 mg, and 25 mg. (3.2, 16)
  • Orally disintegrating tablets: 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg. (3.3, 16)

3.1 Tablets

25-mg, white, scored, shield-shaped tablets debossed with “LAMICTAL” and “25.”

100-mg, peach, scored, shield-shaped tablets debossed with “LAMICTAL” and “100.”

150-mg, cream, scored, shield-shaped tablets debossed with “LAMICTAL” and “150.”

200-mg, blue, scored, shield-shaped tablets debossed with “LAMICTAL” and “200.”

3.2 Tablets for Oral Suspension

2-mg, white to off-white, round tablets debossed with “LTG” over “2.”

5-mg, white to off-white, caplet-shaped tablets debossed with “GX CL2.”

25-mg, white, super elliptical-shaped tablets debossed with “GX CL5.”

3.3 Orally Disintegrating Tablets

25-mg, white to off-white, round, flat-faced, radius-edged tablets debossed with “LMT” on one side and “25” on the other side.

50-mg, white to off-white, round, flat-faced, radius-edged tablets debossed with “LMT” on one side and “50” on the other side.

100-mg, white to off-white, round, flat-faced, radius-edged tablets debossed with “LAMICTAL” on one side and “100” on the other side.

200-mg, white to off-white, round, flat-faced, radius-edged tablets debossed with “LAMICTAL” on one side and “200” on the other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

LAMICTAL is contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity (e.g., rash, angioedema, acute urticaria, extensive pruritus, mucosal ulceration) to the drug or its ingredients [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3)].

Hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients. (Boxed Warning, 4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Life-threatening serious rash and/or rash-related death: Discontinue at the first sign of rash, unless the rash is clearly not drug related. (Boxed Warning, 5.1)
  • Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: Consider this diagnosis and evaluate patients immediately if they develop signs or symptoms of systemic inflammation. Discontinue LAMICTAL if an alternative etiology is not established. (5.2)
  • Fatal or life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction: Multiorgan hypersensitivity reactions, also known as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, may be fatal or life threatening. Early signs may include rash, fever, and lymphadenopathy. These reactions may be associated with other organ involvement, such as hepatitis, hepatic failure, blood dyscrasias, or acute multiorgan failure. LAMICTAL should be discontinued if alternate etiology for this reaction is not found. (5.3)
  • Cardiac rhythm and conduction abnormalities: Based on in vitro findings, LAMICTAL could cause serious arrhythmias and/or death in patients with certain underlying cardiac disorders or arrhythmias. Any expected or observed benefit of LAMICTAL in an individual patient with clinically important structural or functional heart disease must be carefully weighed against the risk for serious arrythmias and/or death for that patient. (5.4)
  • Blood dyscrasias (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia): May occur, either with or without an associated hypersensitivity syndrome. Monitor for signs of anemia, unexpected infection, or bleeding. (5.5)
  • Suicidal behavior and ideation: Monitor for suicidal thoughts or behaviors. (5.6)
  • Aseptic meningitis: Monitor for signs of meningitis. (5.7)
  • Medication errors due to product name confusion: Strongly advise patients to visually inspect tablets to verify the received drug is correct. (5.8, 16, 17)

5.1 Serious Skin Rashes [see Boxed Warning]

Pediatric Population

The incidence of serious rash associated with hospitalization and discontinuation of LAMICTAL in a prospectively followed cohort of pediatric patients (aged 2 to 17 years) is approximately 0.3% to 0.8%. One rash-related death was reported in a prospectively followed cohort of 1,983 pediatric patients (aged 2 to 16 years) with epilepsy taking LAMICTAL as adjunctive therapy. Additionally, there have been rare cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis with and without permanent sequelae and/or death in U.S. and foreign postmarketing experience.

There is evidence that the inclusion of valproate in a multidrug regimen increases the risk of serious, potentially life-threatening rash in pediatric patients. In pediatric patients who used valproate concomitantly for epilepsy, 1.2% (6 of 482) experienced a serious rash compared with 0.6% (6 of 952) patients not taking valproate.

Adult Population

Serious rash associated with hospitalization and discontinuation of LAMICTAL occurred in 0.3% (11 of 3,348) of adult patients who received LAMICTAL in premarketing clinical trials of epilepsy. In the bipolar and other mood disorders clinical trials, the rate of serious rash was 0.08% (1 of 1,233) of adult patients who received LAMICTAL as initial monotherapy and 0.13% (2 of 1,538) of adult patients who received LAMICTAL as adjunctive therapy. No fatalities occurred among these individuals. However, in worldwide postmarketing experience, rare cases of rash-related death have been reported, but their numbers are too few to permit a precise estimate of the rate.

Among the rashes leading to hospitalization were Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, angioedema, and those associated with multiorgan hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

There is evidence that the inclusion of valproate in a multidrug regimen increases the risk of serious, potentially life-threatening rash in adults. Specifically, of 584 patients administered LAMICTAL with valproate in epilepsy clinical trials, 6 (1%) were hospitalized in association with rash; in contrast, 4 (0.16%) of 2,398 clinical trial patients and volunteers administered LAMICTAL in the absence of valproate were hospitalized.

Patients with History of Allergy or Rash to Other Antiepileptic Drugs

The risk of nonserious rash may be increased when the recommended initial dose and/or the rate of dose escalation for LAMICTAL is exceeded and in patients with a history of allergy or rash to other AEDs.

5.2 Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has occurred in pediatric and adult patients taking LAMICTAL for various indications. HLH is a life-threatening syndrome of pathologic immune activation characterized by clinical signs and symptoms of extreme systemic inflammation. It is associated with high mortality rates if not recognized early and treated. Common findings include fever, hepatosplenomegaly, rash, lymphadenopathy, neurologic symptoms, cytopenias, high serum ferritin, hypertriglyceridemia, and liver function and coagulation abnormalities. In cases of HLH reported with LAMICTAL, patients have presented with signs of systemic inflammation (fever, rash, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ system dysfunction) and blood dyscrasias. Symptoms have been reported to occur within 8 to 24 days following the initiation of treatment. Patients who develop early manifestations of pathologic immune activation should be evaluated immediately, and a diagnosis of HLH should be considered. LAMICTAL should be discontinued if an alternative etiology for the signs or symptoms cannot be established.

5.3 Multiorgan Hypersensitivity Reactions and Organ Failure

Multiorgan hypersensitivity reactions, also known as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), have occurred with LAMICTAL. Some have been fatal or life threatening. DRESS typically, although not exclusively, presents with fever, rash, and/or lymphadenopathy in association with other organ system involvement, such as hepatitis, nephritis, hematologic abnormalities, myocarditis, or myositis, sometimes resembling an acute viral infection. Eosinophilia is often present. This disorder is variable in its expression, and other organ systems not noted here may be involved.

Fatalities associated with acute multiorgan failure and various degrees of hepatic failure have been reported in 2 of 3,796 adult patients and 4 of 2,435 pediatric patients who received LAMICTAL in epilepsy clinical trials. Rare fatalities from multiorgan failure have also been reported in postmarketing use.

Isolated liver failure without rash or involvement of other organs has also been reported with LAMICTAL.

It is important to note that early manifestations of hypersensitivity (e.g., fever, lymphadenopathy) may be present even though a rash is not evident. If such signs or symptoms are present, the patient should be evaluated immediately. LAMICTAL should be discontinued if an alternative etiology for the signs or symptoms cannot be established.

Prior to initiation of treatment with LAMICTAL, the patient should be instructed that a rash or other signs or symptoms of hypersensitivity (e.g., fever, lymphadenopathy) may herald a serious medical event and that the patient should report any such occurrence to a healthcare provider immediately.

5.4 Cardiac Rhythm and Conduction Abnormalities

In vitro testing showed that LAMICTAL exhibits Class IB antiarrhythmic activity at therapeutically relevant concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. Based on these in vitro findings, LAMICTAL could slow ventricular conduction (widen QRS) and induce proarrhythmia, which can lead to sudden death, in patients with clinically important structural or functional heart disease (i.e., patients with heart failure, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, conduction system disease, ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac channelopathies [e.g., Brugada syndrome], clinically important ischemic heart disease, or multiple risk factors for coronary artery disease). Any expected or observed benefit of LAMICTAL in an individual patient with clinically important structural or functional heart disease must be carefully weighed against the risks for serious arrythmias and/or death for that patient. Concomitant use of other sodium channel blockers may further increase the risk of proarrhythmia.

5.5 Blood Dyscrasias

There have been reports of blood dyscrasias that may or may not be associated with multiorgan hypersensitivity (also known as DRESS) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. These have included neutropenia, leukopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, and, rarely, aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia.

5.6 Suicidal Behavior and Ideation

AEDs, including LAMICTAL, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.

Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (monotherapy and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to 1 of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared with patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared with 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately 1 case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were 4 suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number of events is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.

The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as 1 week after starting treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.

The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanism of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5 to 100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed.

Table 7 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.

Table 7. Risk by Indication for Antiepileptic Drugs in the Pooled Analysis

Indication

Placebo Patients with Events per 1,000 Patients

Drug Patients with Events per 1,000 Patients

Relative Risk: Incidence of Events in Drug Patients/Incidence in Placebo Patients

Risk Difference: Additional Drug Patients with Events per 1,000 Patients

Epilepsy

1.0

3.4

3.5

2.4

Psychiatric

5.7

8.5

1.5

2.9

Other

1.0

1.8

1.9

0.9

Total

2.4

4.3

1.8

1.9

The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications.

Anyone considering prescribing LAMICTAL or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.

Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that AEDs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, the emergence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers.

5.7 Aseptic Meningitis

Therapy with LAMICTAL increases the risk of developing aseptic meningitis. Because of the potential for serious outcomes of untreated meningitis due to other causes, patients should also be evaluated for other causes of meningitis and treated as appropriate.

Postmarketing cases of aseptic meningitis have been reported in pediatric and adult patients taking LAMICTAL for various indications. Symptoms upon presentation have included headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, and nuchal rigidity. Rash, photophobia, myalgia, chills, altered consciousness, and somnolence were also noted in some cases. Symptoms have been reported to occur within 1 day to one and a half months following the initiation of treatment. In most cases, symptoms were reported to resolve after discontinuation of LAMICTAL. Re-exposure resulted in a rapid return of symptoms (from within 30 minutes to 1 day following re-initiation of treatment) that were frequently more severe. Some of the patients treated with LAMICTAL who developed aseptic meningitis had underlying diagnoses of systemic lupus erythematosus or other autoimmune diseases.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyzed at the time of clinical presentation in reported cases was characterized by a mild to moderate pleocytosis, normal glucose levels, and mild to moderate increase in protein. CSF white blood cell count differentials showed a predominance of neutrophils in a majority of the cases, although a predominance of lymphocytes was reported in approximately one third of the cases. Some patients also had new onset of signs and symptoms of involvement of other organs (predominantly hepatic and renal involvement), which may suggest that in these cases the aseptic meningitis observed was part of a hypersensitivity reaction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

5.8 Potential Medication Errors

Medication errors involving LAMICTAL have occurred. In particular, the names LAMICTAL or lamotrigine can be confused with the names of other commonly used medications. Medication errors may also occur between the different formulations of LAMICTAL. To reduce the potential of medication errors, write and say LAMICTAL clearly. Depictions of the LAMICTAL tablets, tablets for oral suspension, and orally disintegrating tablets can be found in the Medication Guide that accompanies the product to highlight the distinctive markings, colors, and shapes that serve to identify the different presentations of the drug and thus may help reduce the risk of medication errors. To avoid the medication error of using the wrong drug or formulation, patients should be strongly advised to visually inspect their tablets to verify that they are LAMICTAL, as well as the correct formulation of LAMICTAL, each time they fill their prescription.

5.9 Concomitant Use with Oral Contraceptives

Some estrogen-containing oral contraceptives have been shown to decrease serum concentrations of lamotrigine [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Dosage adjustments will be necessary in most patients who start or stop estrogen-containing oral contraceptives while taking LAMICTAL [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. During the week of inactive hormone preparation (pill-free week) of oral contraceptive therapy, plasma lamotrigine levels are expected to rise, as much as doubling at the end of the week. Adverse reactions consistent with elevated levels of lamotrigine, such as dizziness, ataxia, and diplopia, could occur.

5.10 Withdrawal Seizures

As with other AEDs, LAMICTAL should not be abruptly discontinued. In patients with epilepsy there is a possibility of increasing seizure frequency. In clinical trials in adults with bipolar disorder, 2 patients experienced seizures shortly after abrupt withdrawal of LAMICTAL. Unless safety concerns require a more rapid withdrawal, the dose of LAMICTAL should be tapered over a period of at least 2 weeks (approximately 50% reduction per week) [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].

5.11 Status Epilepticus

Valid estimates of the incidence of treatment-emergent status epilepticus among patients treated with LAMICTAL are difficult to obtain because reporters participating in clinical trials did not all employ identical rules for identifying cases. At a minimum, 7 of 2,343 adult patients had episodes that could unequivocally be described as status epilepticus. In addition, a number of reports of variably defined episodes of seizure exacerbation (e.g., seizure clusters, seizure flurries) were made.

5.12 Sudden Unexplained Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP)

During the premarketing development of LAMICTAL, 20 sudden and unexplained deaths were recorded among a cohort of 4,700 patients with epilepsy (5,747 patient-years of exposure).

Some of these could represent seizure-related deaths in which the seizure was not observed, e.g., at night. This represents an incidence of 0.0035 deaths per patient-year. Although this rate exceeds that expected in a healthy population matched for age and sex, it is within the range of estimates for the incidence of SUDEP in patients not receiving LAMICTAL (ranging from 0.0005 for the general population of patients with epilepsy, to 0.004 for a recently studied clinical trial population similar to that in the clinical development program for LAMICTAL, to 0.005 for patients with refractory epilepsy). Consequently, whether these figures are reassuring or suggest concern depends on the comparability of the populations reported upon with the cohort receiving LAMICTAL and the accuracy of the estimates provided. Probably most reassuring is the similarity of estimated SUDEP rates in patients receiving LAMICTAL and those receiving other AEDs, chemically unrelated to each other, that underwent clinical testing in similar populations. This evidence suggests, although it certainly does not prove, that the high SUDEP rates reflect population rates, not a drug effect.

5.13 Addition of LAMICTAL to a Multidrug Regimen that Includes Valproate

Because valproate reduces the clearance of lamotrigine, the dosage of LAMICTAL in the presence of valproate is less than half of that required in its absence [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3, 2.4), Drug Interactions (7)].

5.14 Binding in the Eye and Other Melanin-Containing Tissues

Because lamotrigine binds to melanin, it could accumulate in melanin-rich tissues over time. This raises the possibility that lamotrigine may cause toxicity in these tissues after extended use. Although ophthalmological testing was performed in 1 controlled clinical trial, the testing was inadequate to exclude subtle effects or injury occurring after long-term exposure. Moreover, the capacity of available tests to detect potentially adverse consequences, if any, of lamotrigine’s binding to melanin is unknown [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].

Accordingly, although there are no specific recommendations for periodic ophthalmological monitoring, prescribers should be aware of the possibility of long-term ophthalmologic effects.

5.15 Laboratory Tests

False-Positive Drug Test Results

Lamotrigine has been reported to interfere with the assay used in some rapid urine drug screens, which can result in false-positive readings, particularly for phencyclidine (PCP). A more specific analytical method should be used to confirm a positive result.

Plasma Concentrations of Lamotrigine

The value of monitoring plasma concentrations of lamotrigine in patients treated with LAMICTAL has not been established. Because of the possible pharmacokinetic interactions between lamotrigine and other drugs, including AEDs (see Table 13), monitoring of the plasma levels of lamotrigine and concomitant drugs may be indicated, particularly during dosage adjustments. In general, clinical judgment should be exercised regarding monitoring of plasma levels of lamotrigine and other drugs and whether or not dosage adjustments are necessary.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions are described in more detail in the Warnings and Precautions section of the labeling:

  • Serious Skin Rashes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
  • Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
  • Multiorgan Hypersensitivity Reactions and Organ Failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
  • Cardiac Rhythm and Conduction Abnormalities [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
  • Blood Dyscrasias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
  • Suicidal Behavior and Ideation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
  • Aseptic Meningitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
  • Withdrawal Seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]
  • Status Epilepticus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]
  • Sudden Unexplained Death in Epilepsy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]
  •   Epilepsy: Most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥10%) in adults were dizziness, headache, diplopia, ataxia, nausea, blurred vision, somnolence, rhinitis, pharyngitis, and rash. Additional adverse reactions (incidence ≥10%) reported in children included vomiting, infection, fever, accidental injury, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and tremor. (6.1)
  •   Bipolar disorder: Most common adverse reactions (incidence >5%) in adults were nausea, insomnia, somnolence, back pain, fatigue, rash, rhinitis, abdominal pain, and xerostomia. (6.1)
  •   To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact GlaxoSmithKline at 1-888-825-5249 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

6.1 Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Epilepsy

Most Common Adverse Reactions in All Clinical Trials: Adjunctive Therapy in Adults with Epilepsy: The most commonly observed (≥5% for LAMICTAL and more common on drug than placebo) adverse reactions seen in association with LAMICTAL during adjunctive therapy in adults and not seen at an equivalent frequency among placebo-treated patients were: dizziness, ataxia, somnolence, headache, diplopia, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, and rash. Dizziness, diplopia, ataxia, blurred vision, nausea, and vomiting were dose related. Dizziness, diplopia, ataxia, and blurred vision occurred more commonly in patients receiving carbamazepine with LAMICTAL than in patients receiving other AEDs with LAMICTAL. Clinical data suggest a higher incidence of rash, including serious rash, in patients receiving concomitant valproate than in patients not receiving valproate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Approximately 11% of the 3,378 adult patients who received LAMICTAL as adjunctive therapy in premarketing clinical trials discontinued treatment because of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly associated with discontinuation were rash (3.0%), dizziness (2.8%), and headache (2.5%).

In a dose-response trial in adults, the rate of discontinuation of LAMICTAL for dizziness, ataxia, diplopia, blurred vision, nausea, and vomiting was dose related.

Monotherapy in Adults with Epilepsy: The most commonly observed (≥5% for LAMICTAL and more common on drug than placebo) adverse reactions seen in association with the use of LAMICTAL during the monotherapy phase of the controlled trial in adults not seen at an equivalent rate in the control group were vomiting, coordination abnormality, dyspepsia, nausea, dizziness, rhinitis, anxiety, insomnia, infection, pain, weight decrease, chest pain, and dysmenorrhea. The most commonly observed (≥5% for LAMICTAL and more common on drug than placebo) adverse reactions associated with the use of LAMICTAL during the conversion to monotherapy (add-on) period, not seen at an equivalent frequency among low-dose valproate-treated patients, were dizziness, headache, nausea, asthenia, coordination abnormality, vomiting, rash, somnolence, diplopia, ataxia, accidental injury, tremor, blurred vision, insomnia, nystagmus, diarrhea, lymphadenopathy, pruritus, and sinusitis.

Approximately 10% of the 420 adult patients who received LAMICTAL as monotherapy in premarketing clinical trials discontinued treatment because of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly associated with discontinuation were rash (4.5%), headache (3.1%), and asthenia (2.4%).

Adjunctive Therapy in Pediatric Patients with Epilepsy: The most commonly observed (≥5% for LAMICTAL and more common on drug than placebo) adverse reactions seen in association with the use of LAMICTAL as adjunctive treatment in pediatric patients aged 2 to 16 years and not seen at an equivalent rate in the control group were infection, vomiting, rash, fever, somnolence, accidental injury, dizziness, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, ataxia, tremor, asthenia, bronchitis, flu syndrome, and diplopia.

In 339 patients aged 2 to 16 years with partial-onset seizures or generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, 4.2% of patients on LAMICTAL and 2.9% of patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse reactions. The most commonly reported adverse reaction that led to discontinuation of LAMICTAL was rash.

Approximately 11.5% of the 1,081 pediatric patients aged 2 to 16 years who received LAMICTAL as adjunctive therapy in premarketing clinical trials discontinued treatment because of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly associated with discontinuation were rash (4.4%), reaction aggravated (1.7%), and ataxia (0.6%).

Controlled Adjunctive Clinical Trials in Adults with Epilepsy: Table 8 lists adverse reactions that occurred in adult patients with epilepsy treated with LAMICTAL in placebo-controlled trials. In these trials, either LAMICTAL or placebo was added to the patient’s current AED therapy.

Table 8. Adverse Reactions in Pooled, Placebo-Controlled Adjunctive Trials in Adult Patients with Epilepsya,b
a Adverse reactions that occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with LAMICTAL and at a greater incidence than placebo.
b Patients in these adjunctive trials were receiving 1 to 3 of the concomitant antiepileptic drugs carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, or primidone in addition to LAMICTAL or placebo. Patients may have reported multiple adverse reactions during the trial or at discontinuation; thus, patients may be included in more than 1 category.

Body System/

Adverse Reaction

Percent of Patients Receiving Adjunctive LAMICTAL

(n = 711)

Percent of Patients Receiving Adjunctive Placebo

(n = 419)

Body as a whole

   Headache

29

19

   Flu syndrome

7

6

   Fever

6

4

   Abdominal pain

5

4

   Neck pain

2

1

   Reaction aggravated (seizure exacerbation)

2

1

Digestive

   Nausea

19

10

   Vomiting

9

4

   Diarrhea

6

4

   Dyspepsia

5

2

   Constipation

4

3

   Anorexia

2

1

Musculoskeletal

   Arthralgia

2

0

Nervous

   Dizziness

38

13

   Ataxia

22

6

   Somnolence

14

7

   Incoordination

6

2

   Insomnia

6

2

   Tremor

4

1

   Depression

4

3

   Anxiety

4

3

   Convulsion

3

1

   Irritability

3

2

   Speech disorder

3

0

   Concentration disturbance

2

1

Respiratory

   Rhinitis

14

9

   Pharyngitis

10

9

   Cough increased

8

6

Skin and appendages

   Rash

10

5

   Pruritus

3

2

Special senses

   Diplopia

28

7

   Blurred vision

16

5

   Vision abnormality

3

1

Urogenital

   Female patients only

(n = 365)

(n = 207)

   Dysmenorrhea

7

6

   Vaginitis

4

1

   Amenorrhea

2

1

In a randomized, parallel trial comparing placebo with 300 and 500 mg/day of LAMICTAL, some of the more common drug-related adverse reactions were dose related (see Table 9).

Table 9. Dose-Related Adverse Reactions from a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Adjunctive Trial in Adults with Epilepsy
a Significantly greater than placebo group (P<0.05).
b Significantly greater than group receiving LAMICTAL 300 mg (P<0.05).

Adverse Reaction

Percent of Patients Experiencing Adverse Reactions

Placebo

(n = 73)

LAMICTAL

300 mg

(n = 71)

LAMICTAL

500 mg

(n = 72)

Ataxia

10

10

28a,b

Blurred vision

10

11

25a,b

Diplopia

8

24a

49a,b

Dizziness

27

31

54a,b

Nausea

11

18

25a

Vomiting

4

11

18a

The overall adverse reaction profile for LAMICTAL was similar between females and males and was independent of age. Because the largest non-Caucasian racial subgroup was only 6% of patients exposed to LAMICTAL in placebo-controlled trials, there are insufficient data to support a statement regarding the distribution of adverse reaction reports by race. Generally, females receiving either LAMICTAL as adjunctive therapy or placebo were more likely to report adverse reactions than males. The only adverse reaction for which the reports on LAMICTAL were >10% more frequent in females than males (without a corresponding difference by gender on placebo) was dizziness (difference = 16.5%). There was little difference between females and males in the rates of discontinuation of LAMICTAL for individual adverse reactions.

Controlled Monotherapy Trial in Adults with Partial-Onset Seizures: Table 10 lists adverse reactions that occurred in patients with epilepsy treated with monotherapy with LAMICTAL in a double-blind trial following discontinuation of either concomitant carbamazepine or phenytoin not seen at an equivalent frequency in the control group.

Table 10. Adverse Reactions in a Controlled Monotherapy Trial in Adult Patients with Partial-Onset Seizuresa,b
a Adverse reactions that occurred in at least 5% of patients treated with LAMICTAL and at a greater incidence than valproate-treated patients.
b Patients in this trial were converted to LAMICTAL or valproate monotherapy from adjunctive therapy with carbamazepine or phenytoin. Patients may have reported multiple adverse reactions during the trial; thus, patients may be included in more than 1 category.
c Up to 500 mg/day.
d 1,000 mg/day.

Body System/

Adverse Reaction

Percent of Patients Receiving LAMICTALc as Monotherapy

(n = 43)

Percent of Patients Receiving
Low-Dose Valproated Monotherapy

(n = 44)

Body as a whole

   Pain

5

0

   Infection

5

2

   Chest pain

5

2

Digestive

   Vomiting

9

0

   Dyspepsia

7

2

   Nausea

7

2

Metabolic and nutritional

   Weight decrease

5

2

Nervous

   Coordination abnormality

7

0

   Dizziness

7

0

   Anxiety

5

0

   Insomnia

5

2

Respiratory

   Rhinitis

7

2

Urogenital (female patients only)

(n = 21)

(n = 28)

   Dysmenorrhea

5

0

Adverse reactions that occurred with a frequency of <5% and >2% of patients receiving LAMICTAL and numerically more frequent than placebo were:

Body as a Whole: Asthenia, fever.

Digestive: Anorexia, dry mouth, rectal hemorrhage, peptic ulcer.

Metabolic and Nutritional: Peripheral edema.

Nervous System: Amnesia, ataxia, depression, hypesthesia, libido increase, decreased reflexes, increased reflexes, nystagmus, irritability, suicidal ideation.

Respiratory: Epistaxis, bronchitis, dyspnea.

Skin and Appendages: Contact dermatitis, dry skin, sweating.

Special Senses: Vision abnormality.

Incidence in Controlled Adjunctive Trials in Pediatric Patients with Epilepsy: Table 11 lists adverse reactions that occurred in 339 pediatric patients with partial-onset seizures or generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who received LAMICTAL up to 15 mg/kg/day or a maximum of 750 mg/day.

Table 11. Adverse Reactions in Pooled, Placebo-Controlled, Adjunctive Trials in Pediatric Patients with Epilepsya </
a Adverse reactions that occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with LAMICTAL and at a greater incidence than placebo.

Body System/

Adverse Reaction

Percent of Patients Receiving LAMICTAL

(n = 168)

Percent of Patients Receiving Placebo

(n = 171)

Body as a whole

   Infection

20

17

   Fever

15

14

   Accidental injury

14

12

   Abdominal pain

10

5

   Asthenia

8

4

   Flu syndrome

7

6

   Pain

5

4

   Facial edema

2

1

   Photosensitivity

2

0

Cardiovascular

   Hemorrhage

2

1

Digestive

   Vomiting

20

16

   Diarrhea

11

9

   Nausea

10

2

   Constipation

4

2

   Dyspepsia

2

1

Hemic and lymphatic

   Lymphadenopathy

2

1

Metabolic and nutritional

   Edema

2

0

Nervous system

   Somnolence

17

15

   Dizziness

14

4

   Ataxia

11

3

   Tremor

10

1

   Emotional lability

4

2

   Gait abnormality

4

2

   Thinking abnormality

3

2

   Convulsions

2

1

   Nervousness

2

1

   Vertigo

2

1

Respiratory

   Pharyngitis

14

11

   Bronchitis

7

5

   Increased cough

7

6

   Sinusitis

2

1

   Bronchospasm

2

1

Skin

   Rash

14

12

   Eczema

2

1

   Pruritus

2

1

Special senses

   Diplopia

5

1

   Blurred vision

4

1

   Visual abnormality

2

0

Urogenital

Male and female patients