Dry Eye Syndrome

Publication Date: January 1, 2019

IMPORTANT INFORMATION

IMPORTANT INFORMATION

This pocket guide has been archived and is no longer updated. The information below may be outdated. Please refer to AAO website for current guidelines.

Key Points

...s a common ocular condition that has a high im...


Etiology

...nflammatory Mediators in Dry Eye


...ajor Etiological Causes of Dry Eye...


...able 2. Risk Factors for Dry Eye Mos...


Diagnosis

...Diagnosi...

...ntifying characteristics of the causative fact...


...g clinical observations and tests...


...estions about patient symptoms and signs...


...tients should have a comprehensive adult medic...


...nitial evaluation of a patient who presents with s...


...amination should pay particular attention...


...of conjunctival staining is helpful but under...


...th moderate punctate staining of t...


...ne green dye is NOT recommended for evalua...


...chirmer test can be performed to e...


...he slit-lamp biomicroscopy evaluation sho...


...ew of systems should be performed for...


...high degree of suspicion is appropriate...


...ht have thyroid eye disease should be te...


...B-scan sonogram or other imaging...


...biopsy is appropriate for any patients who have s...


Several studies have failed to correlate...


...th moderate to severe aqueous tear deficienc...


...should be performed in this sequence because the...


...ral minutes should be allowed between th...


Corneal sensation should be assessed...


...nd clinical evaluation for autoimmune disord...


...eye conditions have a chronic course, repeated...


...nostic Tests Ordered for Possible Underly...


...cteristic Findings for Dry Eye Syndrome Diagnostic...


...gren’s International Collaboration Clinical...


Management

...Management...

...h dry eye who are evaluated by non-ophthalmolo...


...ologist should educate the patient about the nat...


...tations for therapeutic goals should...


...fective treatments for evaporative tear...


...combination of therapies should be det...


...therapies may be chosen from any category...


...atients who have suggestive symptoms...


...atients with a clinical diagnosis of mild dry eye,...


...s lowering the computer screen to below eye lev...


...ulsions, gels, and ointments can be used. (III, In...


...artificial tears may be increased, but the pr...


Nonpreserved tear substitutes are general...


...ear substitutes are used frequently a...


...ntributing ocular factors such as blepharitis or m...


...ould be used with caution to treat dry ey...


...abnormalities resulting from blepharit...


...id abnormalities resulting from trichiasis shou...


...lities resulting from lid malposit...


...topical corticosteroid therapy can...


...prescribed corticosteroids for dry...


...fatty acid products without ethyl esters...


...emic omega-3 fatty acid supplement...


...patients with aqueous tear defici...


...plugs may be helpful in moderate to...


...ed with punctal plugs should be mo...


...largest plug that can be inserted should be...


...atients who benefit from having pun...


...herapies such as eyeglass side shield...


...nserts (hydroxypropyl cellulose) are occasio...


...ilocarpine and cevimeline have been...


...atment has been shown to have short-term clinical...


...serum drops have been reported to impr...


...tologous serum drops have been rep...


...y keratitis can be treated with debr...


...laments can be debrided with a cotton-...


...has associated neurotrophic keratopathy,...


...l occlusion can be accomplished by means of th...


...ion with cautery is planned, a tria...


...e approach to cautery occlusion is generall...


...arsorrhaphy can be performed to decr...


...permeable scleral lenses have been employ...


Counseling and Referral

...Counseling and...

...ortant aspects of caring for patie...


...lpful to periodically reassess the...


...with pre-existing dry eye should be cautioned th...


...ve dry eye and are considering keratore...


...n moderate to severe cases that are unres...


...internist or rheumatologist can be...


...h systemic disease such as primary Sjögren syndr...


...e 5. Categories of Dry Eye Treatment...


...ble 6. Treatment Recommendations for...


...Summary of Evidence for the Treatment of Dr...