Dry Eye Syndrome

Publication Date: February 11, 2024

IMPORTANT INFORMATION

IMPORTANT INFORMATION

This pocket guide has been archived and is no longer updated. The information below may be outdated. Please refer to AAO website for current guidelines.

Key Points

...ey Point...

...Dry eye is a common ocular condition...


Etiology

...iology

...ure 1. Inflammatory Mediators in Dry Eye...


...Major Etiological Causes of Dry Eye...


...ctors for Dry EyeHaving trouble viewin...


Diagnosis

...agnosis

...aracteristics of the causative factors, such as a...


...clinical observations and tests are u...


...patient symptoms and signs, exacerbatin...


...tients should have a comprehensive adult...


...initial evaluation of a patient who prese...


...amination should pay particular attention t...


...aluation of conjunctival staining is...


...ents with moderate punctate staining...


...amine green dye is NOT recommended for evaluatin...


...test can be performed to evaluate a...


...iomicroscopy evaluation should focus on the t...


...ew of systems should be performed for any...


...ree of suspicion is appropriate for patients wh...


...ients who might have thyroid eye disease sh...


...sonogram or other imaging study shou...


...psy is appropriate for any patients who have sig...


...veral studies have failed to correlate tear osm...


...th moderate to severe aqueous tear...


...ese tests should be performed in this se...


...eral minutes should be allowed between the d...


...sensation should be assessed when...


...y and clinical evaluation for autoimmu...


...ry eye conditions have a chronic course,...


...iagnostic Tests Ordered for Possible Under...


...eristic Findings for Dry Eye Syndrom...


Figure 3. Sjögren’s International C...


Management

...agement...

...dry eye who are evaluated by non-ophthalmolo...


...ogist should educate the patient about the...


...ealistic expectations for therapeut...


...larly effective treatments for evaporativ...


...uence and combination of therapies...


...es may be chosen from any category regardle...


...atients who have suggestive symptoms...


...with a clinical diagnosis of mild dr...


...asures such as lowering the computer screen...


..., and ointments can be used. (III, In...


...ficial tears may be increased, but the practica...


...ear substitutes are generally preferable. However...


...tear substitutes are used frequentl...


...ibuting ocular factors such as blepharit...


...cin should be used with caution to treat dry...


...id abnormalities resulting from blepharitis...


...ties resulting from trichiasis should be correct...


...abnormalities resulting from lid malpo...


...w-dose topical corticosteroid therapy can be used...


...ibed corticosteroids for dry eye should be monito...


...fatty acid products without ethyl esters m...


...emic omega-3 fatty acid supplements...


...th aqueous tear deficiency, punctal occlusion is...


...l plugs may be helpful in moderate to severe case...


...atients treated with punctal plugs should be...


...lug that can be inserted should be used t...


...s who benefit from having punctal plugs in...


...e therapies such as eyeglass side shi...


...nserts (hydroxypropyl cellulose) are oc...


...arpine and cevimeline have been approved...


...closporine treatment has been shown to have...


...us serum drops have been reported to improve...


...ous serum drops have been reported to impr...


...eratitis can be treated with debridement of...


Filaments can be debrided with a cotton-tip ap...


...t has associated neurotrophic keratopathy, cont...


...t punctal occlusion can be accomplis...


...ith cautery is planned, a trial occlusion with...


...stepwise approach to cautery occlusion is gene...


A limited tarsorrhaphy can be performed to...


...eable scleral lenses have been employed successf...


Counseling and Referral

...seling and Referral

...ortant aspects of caring for patients wi...


...t is helpful to periodically reassess the pati...


...ts with pre-existing dry eye should be...


Patients who have dry eye and are c...


...severe cases that are unresponsive to...


...internist or rheumatologist can be considered for...


...with systemic disease such as primary...


...ries of Dry Eye TreatmentsHaving trouble v...


...tment Recommendations for Dry Eye Syndrome b...


...able 7. Summary of Evidence for the Tr...