Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Publication Date: January 1, 2020

IMPORTANT INFORMATION

IMPORTANT INFORMATION

This pocket guide has been archived and is no longer updated. The information below may be outdated. Please refer to AAO website for current guidelines.

Key Points

...y Points...

...n estimated 80% of age-related macul...


Etiology

...tiology

Risk Factors

...oking cessation is strongly recommended when...

...light of all the available informati...

...e genetic testing for risk alleles is not curren...


...ural Histo...

...dodrusen are best imaged using fundus autofl...


Diagnosis

...agnosis...

...ular degeneration (AMD) is a disorder of the m...


...1. Macular Degenerat...


.... Classification of AMD from the AREDSaHaving t...


Care Process

...e Proces...

The initial evaluation of a patient with sig...


...history should consider symptoms of met...


...istory should consider medication and n...


...history should consider ocular hist...


...initial history should consider so...


...sical examination should include a compre...


...xamination should include stereoscopic...


...r slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the ocular fundus...


...e tomography (OCT) is important in diag...


...assists in evaluating the response...


...er-generation OCT modalities, includin...


...ravenous fundus fluorescein angiography...


...ravenous fundus fluorescein angiography i...


...photodynamic therapy (PDT) or lase...


...ous fundus fluorescein angiography is helpful to...


...s fundus fluorescein angiography is helpful to...


...ected on the basis of new symptoms or ocular...


...cein angiography is performed, the physici...


...angiographic facility should have a care plan in...


...otographs may be obtained when angiography is per...


...s photographs may also be used as a baseline refe...


...ndocyanine green (ICG) angiography has been...


...ICG angiography is performed, the p...


...r tests including fundus autofluorescence,...


...ents with early AMD and/or a family history...


Management

...nagement

...who are currently smoking should be...


...ntioxidants and minerals as describ...


...ients with a high risk AMD phenotype are at incr...


...high risk AMD phenotype should be educated about...


...c monitoring devices are now available to...


...d examination are the recommended elements of t...


...istory should take into account symptoms, inc...


...history should take into account changes in...


...low-up history should take into account ch...


...he follow-up history should take into acc...


...on the follow-up visit should inc...


...xamination on the follow-up visit should includ...


...who have been treated with aflibercept, be...


...ptical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein...


...nt and follow-up with intravitreal anti-vascul...


Subsequent follow-up and treatment interv...


...ts treated with pegaptanib sodium injecti...


...ubsequent examinations, OCT, and fluorescein ang...


...atients should be instructed to report...


...ents should be instructed to monitor their v...


...tients at exceptionally high risk (e.g., the pr...


...nical personnel should be aware that pa...


...e ophthalmologist will perform most of the exam...


...with AMD should be educated about the progn...


...nsent process should include a discus...


...habilitation restores functional ability...


...l or electronic magnifying lenses, bright l...


...ts with Charles Bonnet syndrome and...


...halmologist may inquire about symptoms of clinical...


...Treatment Recommendations and Follow-up...


...e 4. Antioxidant Vitamin and Mineral...


...mmary of Results of Original AREDS for Devel...


Findings and Recommendations for Care

...indings and Recommendations for...

...ts who have been instructed to use aspirin...


...vitamin and mineral supplementation as...


...travitreal injection therapy using pan-vasc...


...s suggestive of postinjection endophthalmitis or...


Treatment Modalities

...eatment Modali...

...evidence to support the use of an...


...se (25 mg) in the AREDS2 formulation could be...


...rapies have become first-line therapy for treatmen...


...t juxtafoveal lesions that may have been previous...


...tients with juxtafoveal lesions may also be...


...nt trend is to use anti-VEGF agents in p...


...ery for extrafoveal lesions remains a less-commonl...


...erapy, acupuncture, electrical stimulation, ma...


...anti-VEGF trials have used either a f...


...d be used when dosing PRN bevacizumab, as it ma...


...uous, variable dosing regimen that attempts t...


...its, complications, and alternatives of th...


...rteporfin is contraindicated in patients wi...


Careful consideration should be giv...


...oduction or enlargement of a pre-existing s...


...cause of the potential adverse effects, such as in...