Retinal Vein Occlusions

Publication Date: February 1, 2020
Last Updated: March 14, 2022


The prognosis of retinal vein occlusions (RVOs) varies according to the site of the occlusion and the type of occlusion (ischemic or nonischemic). In general, more-distal RVOs with less occlusion have a better prognosis than more-proximal RVOs with greater ischemia.

Central retinal vein occlusions (CRVOs) and hemi-CRVOs have clinically similar courses. They are associated with glaucoma and have a higher risk of anterior segment neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma. Branch retinal vein occlusions (BRVOs) and hemiretinal vein occlusions have a visible arterial-venous crossing where the occlusion occurs.

Macular edema may complicate both CRVOs and BRVOs. The first line of treatment for associated macular edema is anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGFs). Intravitreal corticosteroids, with the associated risk of glaucoma and cataract formation, have demonstrated efficacy. Also, laser photocoagulation surgery in BRVO has a potential role in treatment.

Optimizing control of systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes, serum lipid levels, and intraocular pressure (IOP) to control glaucoma are all important in the management of systemic risk factors, as is communicating end-organ damage to the primary care provider. (, , )



Retinal Vein Occlusions

Authoring Organization