Osteoporosis Prevention, Screening, and Diagnosis

Publication Date: September 1, 2021
Last Updated: March 14, 2022

Common Risk Factors for Osteoporosis

  • Increasing age
  • Parental history of hip or spine fracture
  • BMI less than 20 kg/m2 or body weight less than 127 lb
  • Smoking
  • Excessive alcohol use (ie, more than three drinks per day)
  • Conditions, diseases, and medications associated with secondary osteoporosis:*
    • AIDS and HIV, anorexia nervosa, diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2), diminished ovarian reserve, gastric bypass, hyperparathyroidism, hypocalcemia, premature menopause (induced, surgical, or spontaneous), primary ovarian insufficiency, renal impairment, rheumatoid arthritis, Turner’s syndrome, vitamin D deficiency
    • Antiepileptic drugs (eg, phenytoin, carbamazepine, primidone, and phenobarbital), antiretroviral drugs, aromatase inhibitors, chemotherapy, DMPA, glucocorticoids, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists), heparin

Prevention Strategies

Physical Activity

ACOG recommends routine aerobic physical activity (moderate-to-high impact) and weight-bearing exercises (muscle strengthening or exercise against resistance) to maintain bone health and prevent bone loss. ( Moderate , Strong )



Osteoporosis Prevention, Screening, and Diagnosis

Authoring Organization