Last updated March 15, 2022

Epidural Interventions in the Management of Chronic Spinal Pain

Summary of Recommendations

Disc herniation: Based on relevant, high-quality fluoroscopically guided epidural injections,
with or without steroids, and results of previous systematic reviews, the evidence is Level I for caudal epidural injections, lumbar interlaminar epidural injections, lumbar transforaminal epidural injections, and cervical interlaminar epidural injections with strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.


The evidence for percutaneous adhesiolysis in managing disc herniation based on one high-quality, placebo-controlled RCT is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement in patients nonresponsive to conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections.


For thoracic disc herniation, based on one relevant, high-quality RCT of thoracic epidural with fluoroscopic guidance, with or without steroids, the evidence is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.


Spinal stenosis: The evidence based on one high-quality RCT in each category the evidence is Level III to II for fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural injections with moderate to strong recommendation and Level II for fluoroscopically guided lumbar and cervical interlaminar epidural injections with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.


The evidence for lumbar transforaminal epidural injections is Level IV to III with moderate recommendation with fluoroscopically guided lumbar transforaminal epidural injections for long-term improvement.


The evidence for percutaneous adhesiolysis in lumbar stenosis based on relevant, moderate to high quality RCTs, observational studies, and systematic reviews is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement after failure of conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections.


Axial discogenic pain: The evidence for axial discogenic pain without facet joint pain or sacroiliac joint pain in the lumbar and cervical spine with fluoroscopically guided caudal, lumbar and cervical interlaminar epidural injections, based on one relevant high quality RCT in each category is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement, with or without steroids.


Post-surgery syndrome: The evidence for lumbar and cervical post-surgery syndrome based on one relevant, high-quality RCT with fluoroscopic guidance for caudal and cervical interlaminar epidural injections, with or without steroids, is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement.


For percutaneous adhesiolysis, based on multiple moderate to high-quality RCTs and systematic reviews, the evidence is Level I with strong recommendation for long-term improvement after failure of conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections.

Recommendation Grading

Overview

Title

Epidural Interventions in the Management of Chronic Spinal Pain

Authoring Organization

Publication Month/Year

January 24, 2021

Document Type

Guideline

Country of Publication

US

Document Objectives

The objective of these guidelines is to provide a rationale and systematic approach to the application of epidural interventions in managing spinal pain. The guidelines are based upon the available evidence concerning the effectiveness and safety in the treatment of spinal pain.

Inclusion Criteria

Male, Female, Adult, Older adult

Health Care Settings

Ambulatory, Hospital, Outpatient

Intended Users

Nurse, nurse practitioner, physician, physician assistant

Scope

Management

Diseases/Conditions (MeSH)

D015360 - Analgesia, Epidural, D007268 - Injections, Epidural, D007268 - Injections, Epidural, D007268 - Injections, Epidural, D000775 - Anesthesia, Spinal, D000775 - Anesthesia, Spinal, D000775 - Anesthesia, Spinal

Keywords

chronic pain, Chronic Spinal Pain, spinal pain, epidural procedures, epidural

Source Citation

Manchikanti L, Knezevic NN, Navani A, Christo PJ, Limerick G, Calodney AK, Grider J, Harned ME, Cintron L, Gharibo CG, Shah S, Nampiaparampil DE, Candido KD, Soin A, Kaye AD, Kosanovic R, Magee TR, Beall DP, Atluri S, Gupta M, Helm Ii S, Wargo BW, Diwan S, Aydin SM, Boswell MV, Haney BW, Albers SL, Latchaw R, Abd-Elsayed A, Conn A, Hansen H, Simopoulos TT, Swicegood JR, Bryce DA, Singh V, Abdi S, Bakshi S, Buenaventura RM, Cabaret JA, Jameson J, Jha S, Kaye AM, Pasupuleti R, Rajput K, Sanapati MR, Sehgal N, Trescot AM, Racz GB, Gupta S, Sharma ML, Grami V, Parr AT, Knezevic E, Datta S, Patel KG, Tracy DH, Cordner HJ, Snook LT, Benyamin RM, Hirsch JA. Epidural Interventions in the Management of Chronic Spinal Pain: American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) Comprehensive Evidence-Based Guidelines. Pain Physician. 2021 Jan;24(S1):S27-S208. PMID: 33492918.