Diagnosing, Preventing and Managing Cryptococcal Disease Among Adults, Adolescents and Children Living with HIV

Authoring Organization

Publication Month/Year

June 27, 2022

Last Updated Month/Year

August 10, 2023

Supplemental Implementation Tools

Document Type


Country of Publication


Document Objectives

Cryptococcal disease is one of the most common opportunistic infections among people living with advanced HIV disease and is a major contributor to severe illness, morbidity, and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. These guidelines update the recommendations that were first released in 2018 on diagnosing, preventing, and managing cryptococcal disease. In response to important new evidence that became available in 2021, these new guidelines strongly recommend a single high dose of liposomal amphotericin B as part of the preferred induction regimen for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in people living with HIV. This simplified regimen - a single high dose of liposomal amphotericin B paired with other standard medicines (flucytosine and fluconazole) - is as effective as the previous WHO standard of care, with the benefits of lower toxicity and fewer monitoring demands. The objective of these guidelines is to provide updated, evidence-informed recommendations for treating adults, adolescents and children living with HIV who have cryptococcal disease. These guidelines are aimed at HIV programme managers, policymakers, national treatment advisory boards, implementing partners and health-care professionals providing care for people living with HIV in resource-limited settings with a high burden of cryptococcal disease. 

Inclusion Criteria

Male, Female, Adolescent, Adult, Child, Older adult

Health Care Settings

Ambulatory, Outpatient, School

Intended Users

Nurse, nurse practitioner, physician, physician assistant


Diagnosis, Management, Prevention

Diseases/Conditions (MeSH)

D003453 - Cryptococcosis, D003454 - Cryptococcus


human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV, cryptococcal disease


Number of Source Documents
Literature Search Start Date
January 1, 2018
Literature Search End Date
June 1, 2021