Last updated September 2, 2022

Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia: Part 2

Lifestyle

Chart 1. Nutritional Recommendations

The NLA Expert Panel supports a cardioprotective eating pattern for the management of dyslipidemia and overall cardiovascular health that includes <7% of energy from saturated fat, with minimal intake of trans fatty acids to lower levels of atherogenic cholesterol (LDL -C and non- HDL-C). ( A , Moderate )
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The cardioprotective eating pattern should limit cholesterol intake to <200 mg per day to lower levels of atherogenic cholesterol (LDL -C and non-HDL -C). ( B , Moderate )
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There are individuals who are hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol because of genetic or other reasons. For known or suspected hyper-responders, further reduction in dietary cholesterol beyond the <200 mg/day that is recommended as part of the cardioprotective eating pattern for the management of dyslipidemia may be considered. Consumption of very low intakes of dietary cholesterol (near 0 mg/day) may be helpful for such individuals. ( B , Low )
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The NLA Expert Panel recommends any of the following healthy dietary patterns, including an emphasis on a variety of plant foods and lean sources of protein for managing dyslipidemia: DASH, USDA (healthy U.S.-style), AHA, Mediterranean-style, and vegetarian/vegan. However, the dietary pattern should be individualized based on the patient’s specific dyslipidemia. Also, patients’ cultural and food preferences are important for guiding food selection to maximize dietary adherence. Nutritional counseling and follow-up/monitoring by a registered dietitian nutritionist is recommended whenever possible to individualize a patient’s dietary pattern. Nutrition therapy should be included in those with other medical conditions, including diabetes. ( A , Moderate )
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If alcohol is consumed as part of a healthy dietary pattern, this should be in moderation (≤7 drinks per week for women and ≤14 drinks per week for men, consumed in a non-binge pattern). One drink is equivalent to 12 oz. beer, 5 oz. wine, or 1.5 oz. distilled spirits. ( A , Moderate )
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Dietary saturated fat may be partially replaced with unsaturated fats (mono- and polyunsaturated fats), as well as proteins, to reach a goal of <7% of energy from saturated fats. This can be achieved, in part, by incorporating foods high in unsaturated fats, such as liquid vegetable oils and vegetable oil spreads, nuts and seeds, as well as lean protein foods, such as legumes, seafood, lean meats, and non- or low-fat dairy products, into the diet as replacements for foods high in saturated fats. ( A , Moderate )
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Weight loss of 5-10% body weight is generally recommended for overweight or obese individuals to lower atherogenic lipoprotein lipids and improve other ASCVD risk factors. A variety of dietary approaches can be implemented for weight loss. Any dietary approach will result in weight loss if energy intake is reduced. An energy-reduced healthy dietary pattern that meets nutrient needs is recommended for patients who are overweight or obese. Several healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean- style, DASH, USDA, and vegetarian diets, can be tailored to personal and cultural food preferences and appropriate calorie needs for weight control. ( A , Moderate )
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Eating patterns that contain a moderate quantity of carbohydrate, lower glycemic index and load, and higher protein, have been associated with modest benefits for weight loss and maintenance. ( C , Low )
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Plant sterols and stanols (~2 g/day) are recommended for cholesterol lowering, as well as viscous fibers (5–10 g/day or even greater, if acceptable to the patient), as adjuncts to other lifestyle changes. However, individuals with phytosterolemia (sitosterolemia) should avoid foods that are fortified with stanols and sterols. ( B , Moderate )
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For patients with TG levels ≥150 mg/dL, lifestyle therapy is indicated, including weight loss if overweight or obese, physical activity, and restriction of alcohol, sugars and refined starches. Partial replacement of sugars and refined starches with a combination of unsaturated fats, proteins, and high-fiber foods may help to reduce TG and non-HDL- C concentrations. ( A , Moderate )
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For patients with TG levels ≥1000 mg/dL (and selected patients with TG 500–999 mg/dL), a low-fat diet (<15% of energy) and alcohol abstinence are recommended initially to minimize chylomicronemia. In patients with hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes, dietary carbohydrate should not be substantially increased to avoid worsening glycemia when reducing fat intake. Medium chain TG oil may be used as a source of energy that will not induce chylomicron production. For patients without lipoprotein lipase deficiency, dietary fat may be liberalized with monitoring of the TG response once the TG concentration is <500 mg/dL. ( B , Moderate )
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Therapeutic dosages of EPA + DHA for TG-lowering should be done only under the supervision of a qualified clinician. Clinicians are encouraged to educate patients on the importance of the amount of EPA + DHA in each capsule of dietary supplement or prescription products, and to take the appropriate number of capsules daily to achieve therapeutic levels. At present, prescription forms of EPA and EPA + DHA concentrates are indicated only for treatment of very high TG (≥500 mg/dL) to reduce the risk of pancreatitis. ( B , Moderate )
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For primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD, consuming ≥2 servings/week of fish/seafood (preferably oily) is recommended. One serving is equal to 3.5–4 oz. and should ideally not be prepared using deep-frying. ( A , Moderate )
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For patients with known ASCVD, suggestive, but not conclusive, evidence from RCTs is available for a benefit of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation at ~1 g/day EPA + DHA on cardiac mortality, but not non-fatal ASCVD events. EPA + DHA supplements may be considered for such patients, especially those who do not consume the recommended intakes of EPA + DHA from dietary sources. ( C , Low )
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For patients with heart failure, 1 g/day of EPA + DHA is recommended as an adjunct to heart failure therapy. ( A , Moderate )
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An alpha linonelic acid intake of 0.6–1.2% of energy is recommended. ( A , Moderate )
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Consumption of at least three 1-oz. equivalent servings per day of fiber-rich whole grains is recommended. ( A , Moderate )
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Consumption of ≥ 4 servings/week (1 oz. per serving) of nuts (including the legume, peanuts) is recommended, because nut consumption has been consistently associated with reduced ASCVD risk. Nuts may be included in the diet as a protein food and as a source of healthy fat (predominantly unsaturated fatty acids). ( A , Moderate )
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Soy protein foods are one source of plant protein, among others (e.g., nuts, legumes), that may be used as a substitute for protein foods high in saturated fat as part of a cardioprotective eating pattern. ( B , Moderate )
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Nutrition education/MNT by a registered dietitian nutritionist with follow-up and monitoring are recommended to promote long-term dietary adherence. Clinicians should, when feasible, refer patients to a registered dietitian nutritionist for MNT to individualize a cardioprotective dietary pattern and promote successful lifestyle modifications. ( A , Moderate )
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Chart 2. Exercise/Physical Activity Recommendations

The recommended minimal quantity of exercise for supporting cardiovascular health and improving the lipid profile (lowering TG and sometimes raising HDL-C) is 150 min per week of moderate to higher intensity aerobic activity. This level of physical activity is consistent with public health recommendations. ( A , High )
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To enhance the effects on TG and HDL-C, and produce reductions in LDL-C, as well as loss of body fat and weight, ≥2000 kcal per week of energy expenditure (generally 200 to 300 min per week) of moderate or higher intensity physical activity is recommended. ( B , Moderate )
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Resistance exercise is also recommended to play a supportive role in maintaining strength, balance, and bone density. ( B , Moderate )
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Management

General Management

Chart 3. Patient Adherence

The provider should assess adherence to both lifestyle and atherogenic cholesterol-lowering medications at every patient encounter. ( E , Low )
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A multidisciplinary health care team (such as the patient’s primary health care provider; nurses; nurse practitioners; pharmacists; physician assistants; registered dietitian nutritionists, including certified diabetes educators in some practices; exercise specialists; social workers; community health workers; and licensed professional counselors, psychologists, and health educators) is desirable to identify medication non-adherence and to facilitate strategies to improve adherence by helping patients overcome real (or perceived) barriers to adherence. ( E , Low )
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The multi-faceted approach should be employed by clinicians to improve medication adherence, including:
  1. simplify the regimen
  2. provide clear education using visual aids and simple, low-literacy educational materials
  3. engage patients in decision-making, addressing their specific needs, values, and concerns
  4. address perceived barriers of taking medication
  5. identify suboptimal health literacy and use “teach-back” techniques to increase patient understanding of those behaviors needed to be successful
  6. screen and eliminate drug-drug and drug-disease interactions leading to low adherence or drug discontinuation
  7. praise and reward successful behaviors.
( E , Low )
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Chart 4. Team-Based Collaborative Care

Health care teams for optimal lipid and ASCVD risk management may include, where available: the patient; the patient’s primary health care provider; nurses; nurse practitioners; pharmacists; physician assistants; registered dietitian nutritionists, including certified diabetes educators in some practices; exercise specialists; social workers; community health workers; and licensed professional counselors, psychologists, and health educators. ( A , High )
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Health care team members should coordinate care support among various team members, use evidence-based guidelines/recommendations for dyslipidemia management, establish a structured plan for monitoring patient progress, and provide patients with a variety of tools and resources to improve their own care. ( A , High )
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Team-based collaborative care may be incorporated into the Patient Centered Medical Home as a strategy to address shortfalls in patient health care quality, access, continuity, and cost. ( E , Low )
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Hypertriglyceridemia

  • Currently, TG is not a specific target for therapy except when levels are ≥500 mg/dL.
  • When the TG concentration is ≥500 mg/dL, and especially if ≥1000 mg/dL, reducing risk of pancreatitis by lowering of TG to <500 mg/dL becomes the primary goal of therapy.
  • Presently, prescription EPA and EPA + DHA concentrates, which have been approved in ethyl ester and carboxylic acid forms, are indicated for the treatment of very high TG (≥500 mg/dL).
  • Fibrate drugs can reduce TG and non-HDL -C in patients with mixed dyslipidemia, and are considered a first-line choice for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥500 mg/dL).

Chart 5. Children and Adolescents

Universal lipid screening of all children, regardless of general health or the presence or absence of ASCVD risk factors, is recommended between 9–11 years of age, with repeat lipid screening at 20 years of age or earlier if dyslipidemia is present. ( E , Low )
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If a child or adolescent patient is screened and has a fasting or non-fasting non-HDL-C level ≥145 mg/dL, then additional follow-up is recommended. Two fasting lipid profiles should be obtained and the results averaged for evaluation of the most appropriate course of action. ( E , Low )
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Children ≥2 years of age with the following characteristics should be screened for dyslipidemia:
  • One or both biological parents are known to have hypercholesterolemia or are receiving lipid- lowering medications
  • Have a family history of premature ASCVD in an expanded first degree pedigree (i.e., to include not only parents and siblings, but also aunts, uncles, and grandparents) in men <55 or women <65 years of age
  • Consideration should also be given to screening for those in whom family history is unknown (e.g., adopted)
( B , Moderate )
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Children should be regularly screened for major risk factors and conditions associated with increased ASCVD risk, but there are no validated methods for risk factor scoring in patients <20 years of age. ( B , Moderate )
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Decisions on target levels during treatment are a matter of clinical judgment, but age-appropriate, percentile-based cutpoints from the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute should be considered as the upper limits for therapeutic atherogenic cholesterol goal ranges for managing children and adolescents:
  • Non-HDL-C: 144 mg/dL
  • LDL- C: 129 mg/dL
( E , Low )
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Cascade screening and reverse cascade screening are recommended to enhance detection of individuals at risk for FH. ( B , Moderate )
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An alternate treatment goal for pediatric FH patients in whom it may not be possible to achieve an LDL -C level of <130 mg/dL is a 50% reduction in LDL-C. ( E , Low )
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Diet and other lifestyle interventions, including increased physical activity and weight management when overweight/obesity is present, are recommended for lowering elevated LDL -C, non-HDL -C, and TG in children and adolescents. Dietary management strategies should be guided by a registered dietitian nutritionist whenever feasible. ( A , High )
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Children ≥8 years of age are potential candidates for pharmacologic treatment for lipid lowering.
The following treatment plans can be considered: ( B , Moderate )
  • Administer pharmacologic agents, primarily statins, when LDL-C level is ≥190 mg/dL and/or non- HDL-C is ≥220 mg/dL.
  • Consider additional risk factors in addition to elevated LDL-C and/or non-HDL-CCC and follow the treatment algorithm from the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Statins and bile acid sequestrants are pharmacologic agents with evidence for efficacy and safety in children and adolescents. There is limited evidence on the safety and efficacy of cholesterol absorption inhibitors in children and adolescents. ( B , Moderate )
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Consideration should be given to measurement of pretreatment fasting glucose or glycated hemoglobin levels, liver enzymes, and creatine kinase in pediatric patients for whom a statin is prescribed. ( E , Low )
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Potential side effects with lipid-altering pharmacotherapy should be monitored in pediatric patients according to the recommendations from the respective 2014 NLA statin safety task force. ( B , Moderate )
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Special Populations

Women's Health
Chart 6. Women's Health
In general, women should be treated according to the NLA Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia – Part 1 with the following special considerations. ( A , High )
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First-line cholesterol-lowering drug therapy, unless contraindicated, is moderate- to high-intensity statin. The statin dosage may be increased or the patient switched to a more efficacious agent if goal levels of atherogenic cholesterol are not achieved. Statin therapy should be a consideration for patients at very high risk (i.e., ASCVD or diabetes mellitus with ≥2 major ASCVD risk factors), even if the pre-treatment levels of atherogenic cholesterol are below the treatment goals. ( A , High )
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Non-statin drug therapy with cholesterol absorption inhibitor, bile acid sequestrant, fibric acid, nicotinic acid, or long-chain omega-3 fatty acid concentrates (the latter currently indicated only for very high TG) may be considered for women with contraindications for, or intolerance to, statin therapy, or in combination with statin therapy for patients who need additional lowering of atherogenic cholesterol to achieve treatment goals. ( A , High )
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Women taking statins may be at increased risk for certain adverse events, particularly myalgia. Variations between men and women observed in clinical studies of statin-related myalgia incidence may have been related to differences in age, comorbidities, body composition, and polypharmacy. ( B , Low )
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Chart 7. Pregnancy to Menopause
Women should be screened for dyslipidemia before pregnancy or as part of the routine obstetrical laboratory examination. ( E , Low )
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For women taking lipid-lowering medications prior to pregnancy, all, except bile acid sequestrants, should be stopped when the woman becomes pregnant, or is trying to become pregnant. ( B , Moderate )
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Women should be educated on the importance of pregnancy avoidance when lipid-altering therapies other than bile acid sequestrants are used. ( A , Moderate )
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Total-C and TG levels in women with normal pregnancies should not exceed 250 mg/dL. If they do, the clinician should consider and evaluate preexisting or acquired medical or obstetrical conditions, including hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease, liver disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, or preeclampsia. ( A , Moderate )
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Hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy and breast feeding, especially in women with HF, may be treated with bile acid sequestrants. ( B , Low )
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Women with FH may be treated with LDL apheresis during pregnancy and breast feeding. ( A , Low )
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Very high TG (≥500 mg/dL) may be treated during pregnancy with diet/lifestyle management plus prescription omega-3 fatty acids. Fenofibrate or gemfibrozil may be administered beginning early in the second trimester, based on clinical judgment. These agents may be used during breast feeding. ( B , Low )
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PCOS is a high-risk condition for dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obstetrical complications of preeclampsia, hypertension, diabetes, and premature delivery. All patients with PCOS, regardless of age, should undergo initial lipid and diabetes screening. More frequent follow-up screening is recommended, even if initial values are normal. ( A , Moderate )
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The approach to risk stratification and atherogenic cholesterol treatment goals for women with PCOS should be the same as described for all patients with dyslipidemia in the NLA Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia – Part 1. ( A , Moderate )
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Therapeutic management of dyslipidemia in PCOS should focus on diet, exercise, and lipid-lowering medication, if needed. Use of metformin should also be considered to lower TG and reduce insulin resistance ( A , Moderate )
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Contraceptive choice affects dyslipidemia. Combination oral contraceptives should generally not be used by women ≥35 years of age who smoke because of additive stroke and MI risk. ( A , High )
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Sex HT should not be used for prevention or treatment of ASCVD. ( A , High )
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Menopausal sex HT is an option for treatment of significant menopause symptoms during menopause transition for women at minimal risk for ASCVD. ( A , Moderate )
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Older Patients
Chart 8. Older Patients
Primary prevention strategies in patients 65–79 years of age should be managed in accordance with the NLA Recommendations for the Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia-Part 1. ( A , High )
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For patients age ≥65 to <80 years of age with ASCVD or diabetes mellitus, moderate or high intensity statin therapy should be considered after a careful consideration of the risk-benefit ratio. ( A , High )
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For secondary prevention in patients ≥80 years of age, moderate intensity statin therapy should be considered based upon a provider-patient discussion of the risks and benefits of such therapy, consideration of drug-drug interactions, polypharmacy, concomitant medical conditions including frailty, cost considerations, and patient preference. ( B , Moderate )
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Risk calculators such as the ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Risk calculator or the ATP III Framingham Risk Calculator can be used in select older individuals with one additional risk factor to further assess risk, using the thresholds for high risk of ≥15% 10-year risk for a hard ASCVD event (MI, stroke, or death from CHD or stroke) with the Pooled Cohort Equations, and ≥10% 10-year risk for a hard CHD event (MI or CHD death) using the ATP III Framingham risk calculator . However, these risk calculators have several limitations for use in older patients, since advanced age is often the predominate driver of increased ASCVD risk, and this may result in overtreatment of lower risk older individuals. ( E , Low )
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Older, primary prevention patients who are statin-eligible should undergo a patient-centered discussion with their provider about the risks and benefits of statin therapy so that they can make a more informed decision about taking statins over the long term. ( E , Low )
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If the older primary prevention patient is unable to achieve atherogenic cholesterol goals after a minimum 3–6 month trial on lifestyle modification, the provider should discuss the pros and cons of drug therapy and, if feasible, prescribe moderate intensity statin therapy, particularly for patients with one or more ASCVD risk factor aside from age, with risk exceeding the high risk threshold using the Pooled Risk Equation or ATP III Framingham Risk Calculator. ( E , Moderate )
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CAC scoring may be useful to further assess risk in older patients for whom questions remain about whether to prescribe drug therapy. ( E , Low )
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If statin intolerance is an issue, consideration should be given to the use of alternate statin regimens such as low intensity statin therapy or non-daily moderate intensity statin therapy, low dose statin combination therapy with ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants, or niacin, or non-statin monotherapy (i.e., ezetimibe or bile acid sequestrant) or their combination, with a goal of ≥30% reduction in LDL-C. ( B , Moderate )
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Ethnic Groups
Chart 9. Hispanics/Latinos
In general, patients of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity should be treated according to the NLA Recommendations for Patient- Centered Management of Dyslipidemia – Part 1 with the following special considerations. ( A , High )
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Clinicians should be aware that Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are a diverse population group tracing their ancestry to Mexico, the Caribbean (Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic), Central America (El Salvador and Guatemala), and South America. ASCVD risk factor burden varies widely among individuals of Hispanic/Latino descent, depending on their country of origin. ( A , High )
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Hispanics/Latinos tend to have a greater prevalence of high TG and low HDL-CHispanics/Latinos tend to have a greater prevalence of high TG and low HDL-CHispanics/Latinos tend to have a greater prevalence of high TG and low HDL-CHispanics/Latinos tend to have a greater prevalence of high TG and low HDL-CHispanics/Latinos tend to have a greater prevalence of high TG and low HDL-C than NHWs, leading to higher levels of non-HDL-C, and an increased likelihood for discordance between LDL-C and non-HDL-C concentrations. LDL-C levels tend to be higher in Hispanic men compared with NHW men.

( A , Moderate )
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Hispanics/Latinos have higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome compared to NHWs, particularly among women. ( A , Moderate )
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Some cardiovascular risk equations (e.g., Framingham equations) may overestimate risk in Hispanic/Latino individuals. ( B , Moderate )
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Chart 10. African Americans (AAs)
In general, AAs should be treated according to the NLA Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia – Part 1 with the following special considerations. ( A , High )
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Clinicians should be aware that AAs as a group are at increased risk for ASCVD. ( A , High )
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Because attributable ASCVD risk in AAs is less driven by dyslipidemia than in NHWs, particular attention should be given to assessing non-lipid risk factors, such as hypertension, overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and physical inactivity, when ascertaining ASCVD risk. ( A , High )
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AAs have a lower incidence of metabolic syndrome than NHWs, due to lower prevalence of high TG and low HDL-C. However, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is higher in AAs. ( A , High )
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Because AA race/ethnicity is included in the 2013 ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations for estimating 10-year ASCVD risk, this may be the preferable risk calculator to use in patients of AA race/ethnicity. ( B , Moderate )
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Because Lp(a) levels tend to be higher in AA patients, measuring Lp(a) for risk refinement may be considered in AA patients, particularly in those with a family history of premature ASCVD not explained by other risk factors. ( E , Moderate )
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Clinicians should not withhold statin therapy from at risk AA patients with asymptomatic creatine kinase levels that exceed, but are <3.0 times, the standard upper limits of normal. When practical, normative upper limits for creatine kinase that are adjusted for age, race, and sex should be used. ( E , Moderate )
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Chart 11. South Asians (SAs)
In general, patients of SA ethnicity should be treated according to the NLA Recommendations for Patient- Centered Management of Dyslipidemia – Part 1 with the following special considerations. ( A , High )
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Clinicians should be aware that SAs (including individuals who trace their ancestry to Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka; and also members of the SA diaspora–past generations of SAs who originally settled in other parts of the world, including Africa, Canada, the Caribbean, Europe, the Middle East, and other parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands) as a group are at increased risk for ASCVD. ( A , Moderate )
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Patients of SA descent in the United States have a greater prevalence of insulin resistance than NHWs, and some of the metabolic disturbances that accompany this condition include high TG, low HDL-C, and dysglycemia. ( A , Moderate )
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SAs have increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to NHW Americans. Clinicians should be aware that Asians have different waist circumference cut-points for defining overweight/obesity for the definition of the metabolic syndrome than those recommended for Caucasian populations (≥37 inches [≥94 cm] for men and ≥32 inches [≥80 cm] for women). ( A , Moderate )
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Clinicians should be aware that risk assessment methods may under- or over-estimate ASCVD risk when used in populations different from those in which they were developed. ASCVD risk equations may underestimate risk for SAs in particular, although the degree of underestimation is uncertain. Clinicians should consider this when making decisions about risk stratification and treatment. ( B , Moderate )
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Due to the possibility of genetic variation in drug metabolism (as demonstrated mainly in studies of Chinese and Japanese patients), starting with a moderate intensity statin dosage and titrating upward to reach atherogenic cholesterol goals, or downward if intolerance occurs, is recommended for patients of Asian ethnicity. ( B , Moderate )
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Because SAs are at increased risk for diabetes, vigilant monitoring for the potential of new-onset diabetes with statin treatment is warranted. ( A , Moderate )
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Chart 12. American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs)
Clinicians should be aware that AIs/ANs have higher prevalence and incidence rates for ASCVD, and that certain ASCVD risk factors (e.g., obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cigarette smoking) are more common among AIs/ANs than NHWs, whereas prevalence values for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are comparable or slightly elevated compared to NHWs. ( A , Moderate )
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In general, clinicians should screen for and manage dyslipidemia in AI/AN patients using the approach outlined in the NLA Expert Panel Recommendations for Patient- Centered Management of Dyslipidemia – Part 1 . Because of the high prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus in AI/AN populations, strong emphasis should be on lifestyle therapies. ( A , Moderate )
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Clinicians should generally assess risk in AI/AN patients using the risk assessment approach outlined in the NLA Expert Panel Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia – Part 1 . ( B , Low )
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Concurrent Conditions
Chart 13. HIV-Infected Persons
Clinicians should be aware that patients with HIV are at increased risk for ASCVD. The association between HIV infection and ASCVD risk is independent of the risk associated with major established ASCVD risk factors. ( A , High )
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A fasting lipid panel should be obtained in all newly identified HIV-infected patients before and after starting ART. ( A , Moderate )
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For primary prevention of ASCVD, HIV infection may be counted as an additional ASCVD risk factor for risk stratification. ( B , Moderate )
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Risk stratification is based on the NLA Recommendations for the Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia – Part 1 with initial risk stratification based on the number of major ASCVD risk factors (with the caveat that the presence of HIV infection may be counted as an additional risk factor), the use of risk prediction tools, such as the ATP III Framingham Risk Score or the ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations if two risk factors are present, and the use of other clinical indicators to help inform clinical judgment, if needed. ( B , Moderate )
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The non-HDL-C and LDL-C goals described in the NLA Part 1 Recommendations should be followed for HIV- infected patients. Atherogenic cholesterol goals may not be attainable in all patients, but there is incremental benefit to lowering non-HDL-C and LDL-C to approach these goal levels. ( B , Moderate )
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Elevated TG ≥500 mg/dL that is refractory to lifestyle modification or changes in ART (if an option) should generally be treated with either a fibrate ( fenofibrate preferred) or prescription omega-3 fatty acids. After TG is lowered (<500 mg/dL), non-HDL-C and LDL-C should be reassessed for appropriate management. ( B , Moderate )
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Statin therapy is first-line for elevated LDL-C and non- HDL-C. However, interactions between statins and antiretroviral agents and other medications must be considered prior to initiating lipid-lowering therapy. The NLA Expert Panel recommends using atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, or pitavastatin as the generally preferred agents in HIV-infected patients. ( A , Moderate )
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Chart 14. Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Clinicians should be aware that patients with RA are at increased risk for ASCVD. The association of RA and systemic lupus erythematosus with ASCVD risk raises concern that other inflammatory conditions may also be associated with increased ASCVD risk. However, only RA has been studied sufficiently to accurately quantify the degree to which it increases ASCVD risk. ( A , High )
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The association between RA and ASCVD risk is independent of the risk associated with major established ASCVD risk factors. ( A , High )
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For primary prevention of ASCVD, RA may be counted as an additional ASCVD risk factor for risk stratification. (B, Moderate)
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Risk stratification is based on the NLA Recommendations for the Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia – Part 1 with initial risk stratification based on the number of major ASCVD risk factors (with the caveat that the presence of RA may be counted as an additional risk factor), the use of risk prediction tools, such as the ATP III Framingham Risk Score or the ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations if two risk factors are present, and the use of other clinical indicators to help inform clinical judgment, if needed. ( B , Moderate )
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Clinicians should be vigilant in ensuring that RA patients are routinely assessed for cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, family history of early-onset ASCVD, and smoking. Calculation of lifetime ASCVD risk can be considered for patients age 20–59 years. ( B , Moderate )
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Statins are generally the first-line treatment for dyslipidemia in RA. ( A , Moderate )
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At this time, atherogenic cholesterol treatment goals for patients with RA and other inflammatory diseases are the same as described in the NLA Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia – Part 1 . ( B , Moderate )
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If an RA patient has had lipid levels checked during an RA flare, it is recommended that the lipids be re-checked when the disease is controlled. ( B , Moderate )
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Residual Risk After Statins and Lifestyle Modification

Table 14. Recommendations

Fibrates and prescription omega-3 fatty acids are first-line drug choices for patients with TG ≥500 mg/dL, although consideration may be given to using statin therapy as a firstline drug in patients with TG 500–999 without a history of pancreatitis. ( E , Moderate )
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In patients with elevated TG (200–499 mg/dL) on maximum tolerated statin therapy who are at their LDL-C goal but not their non–HDL-C goal, the addition of therapies that primarily lower TG and VLDL-C (fibrates, high-dose omega-3 fatty acids) may be considered to help achieve atherogenic cholesterol goals. Subgroup analyses from cardiovascular outcomes studies provide suggestive evidence of reduced ASCVD-lowering agent to statin therapy, particularly in patients with the combination of elevated TG and low HDL-C. ( B , Moderate )
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For patients not at goal atherogenic cholesterol levels on maximal tolerated statin therapy, consideration should be given to adding non-statin lipid-altering therapy to ongoing statin therapy for further lowering of atherogenic cholesterol, as long as the patient has sufficient ASCVD risk to warrant it, and the expected treatment benefit outweighs the risk for adverse consequences. ( B , Moderate )
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Recommended statin combination therapies to consider for further lowering of atherogenic cholesterol are, in the following order: ( B , Moderate )
  • First – ezetimibe 10 mg every day
  • Second – colesevelam 625 mg 3 tablets twice a day
    (or 3.75 g powder form every day or in divided doses)
  • Third – extended release niacin titrated to a maximum of
    2000 mg daily.
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Until cardiovascular outcomes trials are completed with PCSK9 inhibitors,a these drugs should be considered primarily in: ( B , Moderate )
  1. patients with ASCVD who have LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL (non-HDL-C ≥130 mg/dL) while on maximally-tolerated statin (±ezetimibe) therapy and
  2. heterozygous FH patients without ASCVD who have LDL- C patients without ASCVD who have LDL- C patients without ASCVD who have LDL- C patients without ASCVD who have LDL- C patients without ASCVD who have LDL- C patients without ASCVD who have LDL- C patients without ASCVD who have LDL- C patients without ASCVD who have LDL- C patients without ASCVD who have LDL- C patients without ASCVD who have LDL- C who have LDL- C who have LDL- C ≥130 mg/dL (non-HDL-C ≥160 mg/dL) while on maximally-tolerated statin (±ezetimibe) therapy.
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In addition, PCSK9 inhibitora use may be considered for selected high risk patients with ASCVD (e.g., recurrent ASCVD events) who have atherogenic cholesterol levels below the specified values, but above their treatment goals (i.e., LDL-C ≥70 mg/dL
[non-HDL-C ≥100 mg/dL]). Such use would be based on clinical judgment, weighing the potential benefits relative to the ASCVD event risk and the risks and costs of therapy. ( C , Low )
676
PCSK9 inhibitora use may also be considered in selected high or very high risk patients who meet the definition of statin intolerance (as previously defined by the NLA Statin Expert Panel) and who require substantial additional atherogenic cholesterol lowering, despite the use of other lipid lowering therapies. Such use would be based on clinical judgment, weighing the potential benefits relative to the ASCVD event risk and the risks and costs of therapy. ( C , Low )
676
a PCSK9 inhibitor NOT recommended for children.

Recommendation Grading

Overview

Title

Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia: Part 2

Authoring Organization

Publication Month/Year

December 1, 2015

Document Type

Guideline

External Publication Status

Published

Country of Publication

US

Document Objectives

It provides recommendations regarding the following topics: (1) lifestyle therapies; (2) groups with special considerations, including children and adolescents, women, older patients, certain ethnic and racial groups, patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and patients with residual risk despite statin and lifestyle therapies; and (3) strategies to improve patient outcomes by increasing adherence and using team-based collaborative care.

Target Patient Population

Patients with dyslipidemia

Inclusion Criteria

Female, Male, Adolescent, Adult, Child, Older adult

Health Care Settings

Ambulatory, Outpatient

Intended Users

Nurse, nurse practitioner, physician, physician assistant

Scope

Assessment and screening, Management, Treatment

Diseases/Conditions (MeSH)

D050171 - Dyslipidemias, D000070497 - Healthy Lifestyle, D010348 - Patient Care Team

Keywords

cardiovascular team-based care, dyslipidemia, comprehensive lifestyle intervention