Chronic Kidney Disease Evidence-Based Nutrition

Publication Date: August 26, 2020

Screening and Referral

Screening and Referral

CKD: Routine Nutrition Screening

In adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) 3-5D or posttransplantation, it is reasonable to consider routine nutrition screening at least biannually with the intent of identifying those at risk of protein-energy wasting. (C, Conditional, O)
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CKD: Nutrition Screening Tools

In adults with CKD 3-5D or posttransplantation, there is limited evidence to suggest the use of one tool over others for identifying those at risk of protein-energy wasting. (W, Conditional, 2(D))
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Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

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CKD often progresses slowly over a period of years. The National Kidney Foundation created a guideline to help physicians identify each level of kidney disease. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) measures kidney function. CKD was divided into five stages to help guide treatment:
Stage GFR
Stage 1 With normal or high GFR (GFR >90 mL/min)
Stage 2 Mild CKD (GFR = 60–89 mL/min)
Stage 3A Moderate CKD (GFR = 45–59 mL/min)
Stage 3B Moderate CKD (GFR = 30–44 mL/min)
Stage 4 Severe CKD 9GFR = 15–29 mL/min)
Stage 5 End Stage CKD (GFR <15 mL/min)

Nutrition Assessment

...tion Assessment...

...outine Nutrition AssessmentIn adults with C...


...nfold ThicknessIn adults with CKD 1-5D...


...mferenceIn adults with CKD 5D, we sug...


...icity IndexIn adults with CKD 5D on MHD, we sugges...


CKD: Creatinine KineticsIn adults...


...y Mass Index (BMI) as a Predictor of Mo...


...BMI as a Predictor of Mortality, Peritoneal D...


...: BMI as a Predictor of Mortality, Non-Dialyzed...


...a Predictor of Mortality, Post-TransplantIn pos...


...sition and Body Weight/BMIIn adults with CKD 1-5D...


...: Frequency of Body Weight/BMI and B...


...ment of Body WeightIn adults with CKD 1-5D...


...: BMI and Protein Energy Wasting (PEW)In adult...


...ectrical Impedance for Patients on M...


...D: Bioelectrical Impedance for Patien...


...al-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA...


...: Single Biomarker MeasurementsIn adul...


...um Albumin LevelsIn adults with CKD 5D...


...ndgrip StrengthIn adults with CKD 1-5D, w...


...of Resting Energy ExpenditureIn adults wit...


...ing Energy Expenditure EquationsIn ad...


...int Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)In adults wi...


...utrition Inflammation Score (MIS)In adults wit...


...erations when Assessing Dietary Intake...


...Day Food Records to Assess Dietary...


...ve Methods of Assessing Dietary IntakeI...


Nutrition Intervention

...on Intervention...

...ronutrients

...KD: Dietary Patterns: Mediterranean DietIn adult...

...atterns: Fruits and VegetablesIn adul...

...PUFA Nutritional Supplements for Lipid Profile, Ma...

...FA Nutritional Supplements for Lipid Profil...

...: LC n-3 PUFA Nutritional Supplements...

...KD: LC n-3 PUFA Nutritional Supplements for Morta...

...n-3 PUFA Nutritional Supplements for Mor...

...tein Restriction, Non-Dialysis, Non-DiabeticI...

...ary Protein Intake, Maintenance Hemodialysis, N...

...otein Intake, Peritoneal Dialysis, Non-DiabeticI...

...: Macronutrients: Protein TypeIn adults wit...

CKD: Macronutrients: Protein Type, Pos...

...n-3 PUFA Nutritional Supplements fo...

...lts with CKD 5D on MHD, we suggest not rout...

...istulas. (F, Imperative, 2(A)...

...n-3 PUFA Nutritional Supplements for Kidney A...

...Oral Protein-Energy Supplementation for CKD 3-5DI...

...ral Protein-Energy Supplementation for Post-...

...al Nutrition SupplementationIn adults with CKD 1-5...

...arenteral Nutrition (TPN) and Intradialyti...

...ialysate Protein-Energy Supplementatio...

...n Restriction, Non-Dialysis with DiabetesIn adults...

...ry Protein Intake, Maintenance Hemodialy...

...Statement on Energy Intake in CKD 1-5DIn a...

...atement on Energy Intake in Post-Transpla...


Micronutri...

...icronutrient IntakeIn adults with CKD 3-5D o...

...nutrient Assessment and SupplementationIn adults...

...nt Supplementation, DialysisIn adults with CKD 5...

...Supplementation for Hyperhomocysteinemi...

...Supplementation for Folic Acid Deficienc...

...Folic Acid Supplementation for Folic Acid Defi...

...in C SupplementationIn adults with CK...

...ns E and A Supplementation and ToxicityIn adults...

...ant Medication and Vitamin K Supplement...

...D: Selenium and Zinc SupplementationIn adults...

...in D Supplementation for Vitamin D Deficiency...

...D: Vitamin D Supplementation for Vitamin D...

...n D with ProteinuriaIn adults with CKD 1-5...

...rolytes and Other Nutrient...

...tary Phosphorus AmountIn adults with CKD...

...Dietary Phosphorus SourceIn adults with CKD 1...

...KD: Phosphorus Intake with HypophosphatemiaFor po...

...: Sodium Intake and Blood Pressure, CKD 3-5,...

...dium Intake and Blood Pressure, CKD 5...

...ium Intake and ProteinuriaIn adults with CKD 3-5,...

...: Sodium Intake and Dry Body WeightIn adult...

...etary Potassium AmountIn adults with CKD...

...ary and Supplemental Potassium Intake for...

...KD: Dietary and Supplemental Potassium Intake...

...D: Dietary Management of NEAPIn adults...

...bonate SupplementationIn adults with CKD 3-5D, w...

...Bicarbonate MaintenanceIn adults with CKD 3-...

...Calcium Intake, CKD 3-4In adults with CKD 3-4...

...cium Intake, CKD 5DIn adults with CKD 5D,...


...al Nutrition Therapy (...

...MNT to Improve OutcomesIn adults with CKD 1...

...tentIn adults with CKD 1-5D or posttransplantatio...


Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation

...Monitoring and Evaluation...

...KD: MNT Monitoring and EvaluationIn adults with C...