Chronic Kidney Disease Evidence-Based Nutrition

Publication Date: August 26, 2020

Screening and Referral

Screening and Referral

CKD: Routine Nutrition Screening

In adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) 3-5D or posttransplantation, it is reasonable to consider routine nutrition screening at least biannually with the intent of identifying those at risk of protein-energy wasting. (C, Conditional, O)
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CKD: Nutrition Screening Tools

In adults with CKD 3-5D or posttransplantation, there is limited evidence to suggest the use of one tool over others for identifying those at risk of protein-energy wasting. (W, Conditional, 2(D))
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Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

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CKD often progresses slowly over a period of years. The National Kidney Foundation created a guideline to help physicians identify each level of kidney disease. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) measures kidney function. CKD was divided into five stages to help guide treatment:
Stage GFR
Stage 1 With normal or high GFR (GFR >90 mL/min)
Stage 2 Mild CKD (GFR = 60–89 mL/min)
Stage 3A Moderate CKD (GFR = 45–59 mL/min)
Stage 3B Moderate CKD (GFR = 30–44 mL/min)
Stage 4 Severe CKD 9GFR = 15–29 mL/min)
Stage 5 End Stage CKD (GFR <15 mL/min)

Nutrition Assessment

...trition Assessme...

...tine Nutrition AssessmentIn adults...


...ThicknessIn adults with CKD 1-5D or...


CKD: Waist CircumferenceIn adults with...


...IndexIn adults with CKD 5D on MHD, we suggest t...


...tinine KineticsIn adults with CKD 5D...


...Index (BMI) as a Predictor of Mortality, Mainten...


...edictor of Mortality, Peritoneal Dialysis...


...s a Predictor of Mortality, Non-DialyzedIn adul...


CKD: BMI as a Predictor of Mortality, Post...


...position and Body Weight/BMIIn adults w...


...quency of Body Weight/BMI and Body Com...


...nt of Body WeightIn adults with CKD 1-5D or p...


...nd Protein Energy Wasting (PEW)In a...


...cal Impedance for Patients on MHDIn adu...


CKD: Bioelectrical Impedance for Patients, No...


...nergy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) for Body Compos...


...Single Biomarker MeasurementsIn adults with CK...


...Serum Albumin LevelsIn adults with CKD 5D on...


...trengthIn adults with CKD 1-5D, we suggest th...


...: Assessment of Resting Energy Expe...


...g Energy Expenditure EquationsIn adults with...


...jective Global Assessment (SGA)In ad...


...Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MI...


...Considerations when Assessing Dietar...


...Food Records to Assess Dietary IntakeIn...


...ative Methods of Assessing Dietary IntakeIn...


Nutrition Intervention

...trition Interve...

Macronutrie...

...tterns: Mediterranean DietIn adults...

...Dietary Patterns: Fruits and VegetablesIn...

...KD: LC n-3 PUFA Nutritional Supplements...

...n-3 PUFA Nutritional Supplements fo...

...C n-3 PUFA Nutritional Supplements for Lipid P...

...UFA Nutritional Supplements for Mortali...

...Nutritional Supplements for Mortalit...

...n Restriction, Non-Dialysis, Non-Diabeti...

...ry Protein Intake, Maintenance Hem...

...y Protein Intake, Peritoneal Dialysis, Non-Diabeti...

...acronutrients: Protein TypeIn adults with CKD 1-...

...: Macronutrients: Protein Type, Post-Tran...

...n-3 PUFA Nutritional Supplements...

...KD 5D on MHD, we suggest not routi...

...ulas. (F, Imperative, 2(A))307777...

...-3 PUFA Nutritional Supplements for Kidney Allo...

...ein-Energy Supplementation for CKD 3...

...: Oral Protein-Energy Supplementati...

CKD: Enteral Nutrition SupplementationIn adults...

...Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) and Intradi...

...te Protein-Energy SupplementationIn adults with C...

...n Restriction, Non-Dialysis with D...

...tary Protein Intake, Maintenance He...

...KD: Statement on Energy Intake in CKD...

...on Energy Intake in Post-TransplantIn adults with...


...ronutrients...

...Micronutrient IntakeIn adults with...

...onutrient Assessment and SupplementationIn...

...Micronutrient Supplementation, Dialysis...

...D: Folic Acid Supplementation for...

...Supplementation for Folic Acid Deficiency and Ins...

...d Supplementation for Folic Acid Defici...

...KD: Vitamin C SupplementationIn adults with CKD 1...

...Vitamins E and A Supplementation and Toxi...

...Anticoagulant Medication and Vitamin K...

...ium and Zinc SupplementationIn adults...

...: Vitamin D Supplementation for Vitamin D De...

...tamin D Supplementation for Vitamin D Deficie...

...D: Vitamin D with ProteinuriaIn adults with...

...es and Other Nutrients...

...ary Phosphorus AmountIn adults with CKD...

...tary Phosphorus SourceIn adults with CKD 1...

...osphorus Intake with HypophosphatemiaFo...

...Sodium Intake and Blood Pressure, CKD 3-5, Non...

...dium Intake and Blood Pressure, CK...

...Sodium Intake and ProteinuriaIn adults with CK...

...m Intake and Dry Body WeightIn adults with CKD...

...ietary Potassium AmountIn adults with CKD 3-5D...

...and Supplemental Potassium Intake for Hyperkalemi...

...Dietary and Supplemental Potassium...

...tary Management of NEAPIn adults with CKD...

...ate SupplementationIn adults with C...

...ate MaintenanceIn adults with CKD 3-5D...

...: Total Calcium Intake, CKD 3-4In adults w...

...otal Calcium Intake, CKD 5DIn adul...


...trition Therapy (MNT)...

...to Improve OutcomesIn adults with CKD 1-5D, we...

...ntentIn adults with CKD 1-5D or po...


Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation

...onitoring and Evaluation...

...Monitoring and EvaluationIn adults with CKD 3-5...