Benefits and Risks of Sterilization

Publication Date: March 1, 2019
Last Updated: March 14, 2022

Recommendations and Conclusions

The following recommendations and conclusions are based on good and consistent scientific evidence.

  • Tubal occlusion by laparoscopy is a safe and effective method of permanent contraception.
  • Tubal occlusion does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (including HIV).
  • Compared with abdominal approaches to female sterilization, vasectomy is safer, more effective, and less expensive.
  • Laparoscopic tubal occlusion is far more effective than short-term, user-dependent, reversible contraceptive methods, such as oral contraceptive pills, injections, and barrier methods.
  • Long-acting methods of contraception, including IUDs and the contraceptive implant, are at least as effective as tubal occlusion and are associated with lower morbidity and mortality.
  • Although pregnancy after a sterilization procedure is uncommon, there is substantial risk that any post- sterilization pregnancy will be ectopic.
  • Patients who have undergone sterilization procedures have a lower ectopic risk than non-contraceptive users.



Benefits and Risks of Sterilization

Authoring Organization