Welcome to our succinct summaries of the most recent healthcare news and research. Keep yourself informed with our easily digestible updates sourced from medical media and news outlets.

Associations of Testosterone and Related Hormones With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality and Incident Cardiovascular Disease in Men: Individual Participant Data Meta-analyses

Study Details | Source

  • The study investigated the correlation between testosterone and other hormone levels in aging men and their impact on health.
  • The findings revealed that men with low testosterone, high LH, or very low estradiol concentrations had a higher risk of all-cause mortality. Additionally, SHBG concentration showed a positive association, while DHT concentration displayed a nonlinear relationship with all-cause and CVD mortality. These results underscore the importance of monitoring hormone levels in aging men to assess their overall health and mortality risk.

Consumption of Olive Oil and Diet Quality and Risk of Dementia-Related Death

Study Details | Source

  • The researchers conducted a study to investigate the relationship between olive oil consumption and the risk of developing dementia. They also analyzed how diet quality and the substitution of other fats may impact this association.
  • The results of the study showed that in American adults, a higher intake of olive oil was associated with a decreased risk of dementia-related mortality, regardless of overall diet quality.

Medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder associated with increased risk of developing glaucoma

Study Details | Source

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) therapies, such as atomoxetine, methylphenidate, and amphetamines, are among the most commonly prescribed medications in North America. However, it is important to note that these drugs should not be used by patients with a history of angle closure glaucoma (ACG) due to their sympathomimetic action.
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of developing angle closure glaucoma (ACG) and open angle glaucoma (OAG) among individuals using these ADHD treatments.
  • The findings of the study indicate that the use of amphetamines and atomoxetine is associated with a higher risk of developing ACG, while the use of methylphenidate is linked to a higher risk of OAG. Given the widespread use of ADHD medications, both medically and recreationally, it is crucial to understand the potential risks of glaucoma associated with these treatments for public health reasons.

Association of ultra-processed food consumption with all cause and cause specific mortality: population based cohort study

Study Details | Source

  • This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and both all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality.
  • The results of the study revealed that individuals who consumed a higher amount of ultra-processed foods had a slightly elevated risk of all-cause mortality, particularly from causes other than cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Interestingly, the associations between ultra-processed food consumption and mortality differed among various subgroups of these foods. Notably, products that were meat, poultry, or seafood-based and ready-to-eat showed particularly strong associations with mortality.

Effectiveness of preventive treatment among different age groups and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection status: a systematic review and individual-participant data meta-analysis of contact tracing studies

Study Details | Source

  • This study sought to assess the efficacy of tuberculosis preventive treatment in individuals who have been exposed to the disease, taking into account their age and infection status with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as the burden of tuberculosis in their respective settings.
  • The research found that a targeted strategy focusing on individuals who have evidence of M. tuberculosis infection may be most beneficial in regions with a low burden of tuberculosis. Conversely, a more comprehensive approach that includes all contacts may be more appropriate in areas with a high burden of the disease. Importantly, our findings demonstrate that preventive treatment is equally effective across all age groups.

Zinc for prevention and treatment of the common cold

Study Details | Source

  • Currently there are no established interventions to prevent colds or shorten their duration, although zinc supplements are often recommended for this purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of zinc for both the prevention and treatment of the common cold.
  • The results of the study indicate that while zinc supplementation may not have a significant impact on preventing colds, it may help to reduce the duration of ongoing colds. However, it is important to note that there was an increase in non-serious adverse events associated with zinc supplementation. Additionally, there was a wide range of interventions and outcomes across the studies, as well as incomplete reporting of certain domains. These factors should be taken into consideration when drawing conclusions about the efficacy of zinc for the common cold.

Physical Activity is Associated with a Decreased Risk of Developing Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Study DetailsSource

  • Modifiable risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as physical activity, can serve as effective prevention strategies. However, previous studies have yielded inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between physical activity and the risk of developing IBD. To address this gap in knowledge, the objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the impact of physical activity on IBD risk.
  • Our meta-analysis indicates that engaging in physical activity is linked to a decreased risk of developing IBD, particularly in Crohn’s disease (CD) compared to ulcerative colitis (UC). This suggests that incorporating regular physical activity into one’s lifestyle may play a significant role in reducing the likelihood of developing IBD.

Most Cancer Drugs That Were Granted Accelerated Approval Did Not Show Clinical Benefits

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  • A study published in JAMA analyzed the clinical benefits of cancer drugs that have received accelerated approval. 
  • The findings revealed that the majority of these drugs did not show significant enhancements in overall survival or quality of life within five years of their initial approval. It is imperative for patients to have comprehensive knowledge about cancer drugs that have been granted accelerated approval, as they may not ultimately prove to be beneficial in improving patient-centered clinical outcomes.

Functional decline in older breast cancer survivors treated with and without chemotherapy and non-cancer controls: results from the Hurria Older PatiEnts (HOPE) prospective study

Study Details | Source

  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors contributing to physical functional decline in older women with early-stage cancer, specifically examining the impact of cancer, chemotherapy, or a combination of both.
  • Our research revealed that in older adults with early-stage cancer, the combination of cancer and chemotherapy significantly accelerates functional decline. These findings highlight the importance of implementing interventions focused on maintaining physical function, especially during and after chemotherapy treatment.
  • For cancer survivors, the prevalence of accelerated functional decline among older women undergoing cancer chemotherapy emphasizes the critical need for interventions aimed at preserving physical function and enhancing overall health outcomes.

Acute Cardiac Events in Hospitalized Older Adults With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

Study Details | Source

  • In this cross-sectional study, it was noted that nearly 25% of hospitalized adults aged 50 years or older with RSV infection suffered from an acute cardiac event.
  •  The risk of severe outcomes was nearly twice as high in patients who experienced acute cardiac events compared to those who did not. The results of this study indicate that acute cardiac events are prevalent among hospitalized older adults with RSV infection and are linked to severe clinical outcomes.

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